Here we report the preparation and characterization of a novel biomimetic toothpaste containing morphogenetically active amorphous polyphosphate (polyP) microparticles enriched with retinyl acetate (“a-polyP/RA-MP”). The spherical microparticles (average size, 550±120 nm), prepared by co-precipitating sodium-polyP with calcium chloride and supplemented with retinyl acetate, were incorporated into a basis toothpaste at a final concentration of 1% or 10%. The paste containing “a-polyP/RA-MP” significantly increased the growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), compared to a commercial toothpaste which acts rather inhibitory and the paste without polyP and retinyl acetate. qRT-PCR experiments revealed that the retinoid causes an induction of the expression of the MSC marker genes for osteoblast differentiation encoding collagen type I and alkaline phosphatase. On the other hand, the polyP ingredient, supplied as Zn-polyP microparticles (“Zn-a-polyP-MP”) strongly inhibited the growth of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. We demonstrate that the amorphous polyP-containing toothpaste, enriched with retinyl acetate, efficiently repairs both cracks/fissures and carious lesions in the tooth enamel, and reseals dentinal tubules, already after a 5 d treatment (brushing) of teeth twice daily for 5 min as examined by SEM and quantitative EDX analysis. The stability of the occlusion of dentin cracks even turned out to resist against short high power sonication treatment. Our results demonstrate that the novel toothpaste prepared here, containing amorphous polyP and retinyl acetate, is particularly suitable for prevention/repair of (cariogenic) damages of tooth enamel/dentin and for treatment of dental hypersensitivity.