Groundwater plays a pivotal role as the largest potable water sources in Bangladesh. However, the quality of the groundwater faces challenges due to xenobiotic compounds in it. Excess amount of arsenic (As) has already been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the water quality and associated human health risk in central Bangladesh. A total of 99 groundwater samples from the central part of Bangladesh were analyzed to assess human health risk due to high level of nitrate (NO3-) and other trace elements i.e. arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). It was found that NO3- concentration (253.17 mg/L) in the groundwater samples exceeds the recommended guideline value by the WHO (50 mg/L). Moreover, this study area also characterized with elevated concentration of As (19.44 µg/L), Fe (811.35 µg/L), and Mn (455.18 µg/L) in the groundwater. Non-carcinogenic human health risk was calculated by justifying HQ (Hazard Quotient) and HI (Hazard Index) and attributed potential conjunctive human health risks due to NO3-, As, Fe and Mn in the study area. Moreover, high carcinogenic risk was found due to As contamination in the groundwater samples in the study area.