ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0490.v1
Subject: Sport Sciences & Therapy, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: rehabilitation; shoulder; electromyography feedback; visual biofeedback; assistive robot; musculoskeletal disorder
Online: 30 September 2022 (15:04:05 CEST)
While shoulder injuries represent the musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) most encountered in physical therapy, there is no consensus on their management. As attempts to provide standardized and personalized treatment, a robot-ic-assisted device combined with EMG biofeedback specifically dedicated to shoulder MSDs has been developed. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an 8-week rehabilitation program (≈3 sessions a week) using a ro-botic-assisted device combined with EMG biofeedback (RA-EMG group) in comparison with a conventional program (CONV group) in patients presenting with shoulder MSDs. This study is a retrospective cohort study including data from 2010 to 2013 on patients initially involved in a physical rehabilitation program in a private clinic of Chicoutimi (Canada) for shoulder MSDs. Shoul-der flexion strength and range of motion were collected before and after the rehabilitation program. Forty-four patients participated in a conventional pro-gram using dumbbell (CONV group) while 72 of them completed a program on robot-assisted device with EMG and visual biofeedback (RA-EMG group), whereby both programs consisted in 2 sets of 20 repetitions at 60% of maximal capacity. Results showed that the RA-EMG had significantly greater benefits than the Conv group for shoulder flexion strength (+103.1% vs 67%, p = 0.016) and range of motion (+14.4% vs 6.1%, p = 0.046). The current retrospective co-hort study showed that a specific and tailored rehabilitation program with constant effort by automatic adjustment of the level of resistance was able to potentiate strength and range of motion shoulder flexion after an 8-week reha-bilitation period in comparison with a conventional approach in patients with shoulder MSDs. This study provides new insight on shoulder MSD rehabilita-tion and future research should be pursued to determine the added potential of this approach for abduction and external rotation with a randomized controlled design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Occupational; Musculskeletal; pain; lifecourse; mathematical modeling.
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:27:07 CEST)
Introduction. Musculoskeletal disorders related to work might follow with a cumulative effect during working life. We aimed to develop a new model to allow to compare the accuracy of duration of work and intensity/frequency associations in application to severe knee pain. Methods. The CONSTANCES cohort is used with data from n=66553 subjects who were working at inclusion and coded. From a biomechanical job exposure matrix “JEM Constances”, intensity/frequency of heavy lifting and kneeling/squatting were used and applied to the work history in comparison to severe knee pain. An innovative model was developed and evaluated, allowing to compare the accuracy of duration of work and intensity/frequency associations. Results. The mean age is 49 years at inception with 46 percent of women. The G model developed was slightly better than regular models. In men, odds ratios of the highest quartile for the duration and low intensity were not significant for both exposures, whereas intensity/duration were for every duration. Results in women were less interpretable. Conclusion. Though increased duration increased strength of association with severe knee pain, intensity/frequency were important predictors among men. Exposure estimation along working history should have emphasis on such parameters, though other outcomes should be studied such as women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: carrot juice; human gut microbiota; fermentation; prebiotic; lactate; Lactobacillus fermentum; Lactobacillus salivarius; Lactobacillus mucosae; Bacteroides uniformis; Enterococcus faecium
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:19:07 CEST)
Carrot juice and its associated beverage products are well-known healthy drinks all over the world. However, what effect carrot juice has on the human gut microbiota and how it is fermented by the intestinal microbes have not been studied. Here, using an in vitro model of anaerobic fermentation, we demonstrated that carrot juice could be fermented into lactate and acetate by the human gut microbiota. 16S high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic analyses indicated that fermentation of carrot juice could significantly change the composition of the human gut microbiome. Interestingly, carrot juice remarkably increased the abundances of beneficial bacteria, including Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus mucosae and Bacteroides uniformis and decreased the population of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecium in the gut. Collectively, our study illustrates a favorable effect of carrot juice on the human gut microbiota and lays a foundation for the development of carrot juice as a novel prebiotic agent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Immunology; innate immunity; immunogenetics; noncoding genome; tRNA biology; evolutionary genetics (list 3-10 specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline)
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:13:06 CEST)
During the past few years unexpected developments have driven studies in the field of clinical immunology. One driver of immense impact was the outbreak of a pandemic caused by the novel virus SARS-CoV-2. Excellent recent reviews address diverse aspects of immunological re-search into cardiovascular diseases. Here, we specifically focus on selected studies taking ad-vantage of advanced state-of-the-art molecular genetic methods ranging from genome-wide epi/transcriptome mapping and variant scanning to optogenetics and chemogenetics. First, we discuss emerging clinical relevance of advanced diagnostics for cardiovascular diseases - includ-ing those associated with COVID-19 - with a focus on the role of inflammation in cardiomyopa-thies and arrhythmias. Second, we consider newly identified immunological interactions at or-gan and systems level which affect cardiovascular pathogenesis. Thus, studies into immune in-fluences arising from the intestinal system are moving towards therapeutic exploitation. Fur-ther, powerful new research tools have enabled novel insight into brain – immune system inter-actions at unprecedented resolution. This latter line of investigation emphasizes the strength of influence of emotional stress - acting through defined brain regions - upon viral and cardiovas-cular disorders. Several challenges need to be overcome before the full impact of these far-reaching new findings will hit the clinical arena.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0180.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: oxidative stress; nitrative stress; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; nitric oxide inflammation; obesity; peroxynitrite; adipose tissue
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:10:38 CEST)
It is now well accepted that most chronic diseases have a common feature which is “low-grade” inflammation. Whether inflammation is causal or rather consequent to these diseases is still a matter of debate. A key factor of inflammation is considered to be “oxidative stress”, which is the result of an alteration of redox homeostasis which is critical for the regulation of physiological cell and organ metabolism and proliferation. The term “oxidative stress” is how-ever often used in an inappropriate manner as the primary target of the initial oxidative radical, superoxide ion, is nitric oxide which, being in large excess, acts as a “buffer”, yielding reactive nitrogen species. It is only once the superoxide fluxes exceed the nitric oxide fluxes that true “oxidative stress” occurs. Nitro-oxidative stress is a more appropriate term which takes into account the evolving generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and their effects on cell and organ pathophysiology. The molecular bases of redox homeostasis and nitro-oxidative stress will be presented and discussed using obesity-linked inflammation as a path-ophysiological example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0486.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: wastewater treatment; combinatorial normalization; codec; pollutant indicators; predict
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:07:01 CEST)
Effective prediction of wastewater treatment is beneficial for precise control of wastewater treatment processes. The nonlinearity of pollutant indicators such as COD and TP makes the model difficult to fit and has low prediction accuracy. The classical deep learning methods have been shown to perform nonlinear modeling. However, there are enormous numerical differences between multi-dimensional data in the prediction problem of wastewater treatment, such as COD above 3000 mg/L and TP around 30 mg/L. It will make current normalization methods challenging to handle effectively, leading to the training failing to converge and the gradient disappears or exploding. This paper proposes a multi-factor prediction model based on deep learning. The model consists of a combined normalization layer and a codec. The combined normalization layer combines the advantages of three normalization calculation methods: z-score, Interval, and Max, which can realize the adaptive processing of multi-factor data, fully retain the characteristics of the data, and finally cooperate with the codec to learn the data characteristics and output the prediction results. Experiments show that the proposed model can overcome data differences and complex nonlinearity in predicting industrial wastewater pollutant indicators and achieve better prediction accuracy than classical models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0485.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: QKD; distillation; reconciliation; conjugate frame
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:03:56 CEST)
Previously, using the conjugate frame-based reconciliation approach, we defined a method to correct errors produced in pairs of non-orthogonal quantum states that are transmitted through a quantum key distribution (QKD) link. The security of the frame-based reconciliation was discussed in order to deal with Photon Number Division (PNS) attack and Intercept and Forward (IR) attack, among others. However, until the time of publication we did not have the distillation software to test our method. In this article, following the conjugate frame distillation method, we present the implementation of the post-processing system that demonstrates that it is capable of correcting errors in the presence of error rates close to unity. The system shows that when the number of double-sensing events at Bob's station is as low as 100, the number of secret bits stays above 4500 bits in about 12 seconds, giving a secret rate of 375 bits per second while that the channel error rate reaches 90\%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0484.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: optimal auxiliary functions method; Rabinovich system; symmetries; Hamilton--Poisson realization; periodical orbits
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:59:49 CEST)
Based on some geometrical properties of the Rabinovich system the closed-form solutions of the equations has been established. Moreover the Rabinovich system is reduced to a nonlinear differential equation depending on an auxiliary unknown function. The approximate analytical solutions are built using the Optimal Auxiliary Functions Method (OAFM). A good agreement between the analytical and corresponding numerical results has been performed. The accuracy of the obtained results emphasizes that this procedure could be successfully applied for more dynamical systems with these geometrical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; data efficient; curriculum learning; transfer learning
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:35:06 CEST)
Sparse reward long horizon task is a major challenge for deep reinforcement learning algorithm. One of the key barriers is data-inefficiency. Even in the simulation environment, it usually takes weeks to training the agent. In this study, a data-efficiency training framework is proposed, where a curriculum learning is design for the agent in the simulation scenario. Different distributions of the initial state are set for the agent to get more informative reward during the whole training process. A fine-tuning of the parameters in the output layer of the neural network for value function is conduct to bridge the gap between sim-to-real. An experiment of UAV maneuver control is conducted in the proposed training framework to verify the method more efficient. We demonstrate that data-efficiency is different for the same data in different training stages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Telomerase reverse transcriptase; TERT; TERT promoter; TERTp; human papillomavirus; HPV; Epstein Barr virus (EBV); Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; HHV-8; hepatitis B virus; HBV; hepatitis C virus; HCV; human T-cell leukemia virus-1; HTLV-1
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:11:58 CEST)
Human oncoviruses are able to subvert telomerase function in cancer cells through multiple strategies. The activity of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (TERT) is commonly enhanced in virus-related cancers. Viral oncoproteins, such as high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) LMP1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8) LANA, hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBVx, hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) tax protein, interact with regulatory elements in the infected cells and contribute to the transcriptional activation of TERT gene. Specifically, viral oncoproteins have been shown to bind TERT promoter, to induce post-transcriptional alterations of TERT mRNA and to cause epigenetic modifications, which have important effects on the regulation of telomeric and extra-telomeric functions of the telomerase. Other viruses, such as herpesviruses, operate by integrating their genomes within the telomeres or by inducing alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in non-ALT cells. In this review, we recapitulate recent findings on virus-telomerase/telomeres interplay and the importance of TERT-related oncogenic pathways activated by cancer causing viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0481.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: diabetes status; prediabetes; type 2 diabetes; breast cancer; NHANES
Online: 30 September 2022 (08:40:03 CEST)
Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast cancer and diabetes status are related in adult Americans. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7,599 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Diabetes was classified as type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes. Both prediabetes and diabetes were diagnosed according to ADA 2014 guidelines. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between diabetes status and breast cancer. Results: We found that prediabetes (OR = 0. 60, 95% CI:(0. 40, 0. 88), P= 0. 009613) and non-diabetes (OR = 0.05.3,95% CI: (0.34, 0.83), P = 0. 006014) were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in comparison to Type 2 diabetes (literature). Prediabetes in non-Hispanic blacks was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (OR=0. 55,95%CI:0. 40-0. 75, P<0. 001). Using two segmented linear regression models to fit the relationship between BMI and breast cancer, we found that the relationship between BMI and breast cancer was nonlinear, but there was a threshold effect. The threshold effect analysis found that BMI affcted breast cancer at an inflection point 26. 3 Kg/m2. Adjusted OR (95% CI) on both sides of the turning point was 1. 0799 ( 1. 0029, 1. 1629 ) and 0. 9873 ( 0. 9638, 1. 0115 ), respectively. Conclusions: Diabetes status is associated with the risk of breast cancer development. Moreover, the risk of developing breast cancer steadily increased from nondiabetes to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. In addition, the prevalence of breast cancer showed a gradual increase withincreasing BMI up to 26. 3 Kg/m2 with the highest prevalence of breast cancer. There was an inverse U-shaped relationship between BMI and the breast cancer prevalence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0480.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: transparent photovoltaics; semi-transparent photovoltaics; biomimetic
Online: 30 September 2022 (08:25:31 CEST)
There has been a surge in the interest for (semi)transparent photovoltaics (sTPVs) in recent years, since the more traditional, opaque, devices are not ideally suited for a variety of innovative appli-cations spanning from smart and self-powered windows for buildings to those for vehicle inte-gration. Additional requirements for these photovoltaic applications are a high conversion effi-ciency (despite the necessary compromise to achieve a degree of transparency) and an aesthetical-ly pleasing design. One potential realm to explore in the attempt to meet such challenges is the bio-logical world, where evolution has led to highly efficient and fascinating light-management structures. In this mini-review, we explore some of the biomimetic approaches that can be used to improve both transparent and semitransparent photovoltaic cells, such as moth-eye inspired structures for improved performance and stability or tuneable, coloured, and semi-transparent devices inspired by beetles’ cuticles. Lastly, we will briefly discuss possible future developments for bio-inspired and potentially bio-compatible sTPVs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0479.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Posttranscriptional Modification; Alternative Splicing; Congenital Heart Defects; Transcriptome; Splicing Variants
Online: 30 September 2022 (08:23:54 CEST)
Advancements in genomics, bioinformatics and genome editing have uncovered new dimensions in gene regulation. Post-transcriptional modifications by the alternative splicing of mRNA transcripts are critical regulatory mechanisms of mammalian gene expression. In the heart, there is an expanding interest in elucidating the role of alternative splicing in transcriptome regulation. Substantial efforts have been directed towards investigating this process in heart development and failure. However, few studies have shed light on alternative splicing products and their dysregulation in congenital heart defects (CHDs). While elegant reports have shown the crucial roles of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in orchestrating splicing transitions during heart development and failure, the impact of RBPs dysregulation or genetic variation on CHDs has been fully addressed. Herein, we review the current understanding of alternative splicing and RBPs’ roles in heart development and CHDs and discuss the impacts of perinatal splicing transition and its dysregulation in CHDs. We further summarize discoveries made of causal splicing variants in key transcription factors that have been implicated in CHDs. Improved understanding of the roles of alternative splicing in heart development and CHDs may potentially inform novel preventive and therapeutic advancements for newborn infants with CHDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0478.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: gain-switching; semiconductor laser; quantum-dot; homogeneous-broadening; inhomogeneous-broadening; pulse generation
Online: 30 September 2022 (08:02:06 CEST)
For the first time the gain switching properties of an InAs-InP (113)B quantum dot laser are examined theoretically in detail to generate shorter pulses with the application of a Gaussian pulse beam to the laser excited state. The multi population rate equations considering nonlinear gain are solved by the Runge –Kutta method. The numerical results demonstrated that as the homogeneous and the inhomogeneous broadening increase, the differential gain, the gain compression factor and the threshold current of excited state decrease, while threshold current of ground state increases. It was also observed that the contribution of the excited state to gain-switched output pulses depends on not only the value of the inhomogeneous broadening but also the magnitude of the applied current. Finally it was shown that without an optical beam, output pulse has long pulse width due to ground state emission, whereas with an optical beam, narrow pulses having high peak power owing to the excited state emission are generated even though at low currents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0477.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: advanced glycation end products; skin autofluorescence; pentosidine; d-ROMs; BAP; BAP/d-ROMs ratio; athlete; runner
Online: 30 September 2022 (07:30:22 CEST)
Chronic oxidative stress in long-distance runners adversely affects conditioning. Therefore, it is important to objectively assess and monitor oxidative stress but measuring oxidative stress can be invasive or require skill to measure. Therefore, this study aimed to verify whether skin autofluorescence (SAF), a noninvasive, rapid, and easily calculable metric for calculating advanced glycation end products (AGEs), is useful as an oxidative stress biomarker. The subjects were 50 young Japanese male long-distance runners (aged 20.2 ± 1.2 years); 35 average male university students (aged 19.8 ± 1.1 years) served as controls. The interactions and relationships between SAF and plasma pentosidine and oxidative stress markers (reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds [d-ROMs], biological antioxidant potential [BAP], and the BAP/d-ROMs ratio) in runners were examined, and SAF in the runners and controls was compared. The results suggest that plasma pentosidine in runners is associated with oxidative stress markers and that plasma pentosidine can assess oxidative stress. However, SAF was not validated as an oxidative stress marker because it was not associated with oxidative stress marker. In future, clarifying the factors affecting SAF may clarify the relationship between SAF, plasma pentosidine, and oxidative stress markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0476.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Sum of active temperatures; SAT; CA storage; physiological disorders; TSS; length of growth; harvest date estimation
Online: 30 September 2022 (07:03:43 CEST)
The European pear is a climacteric fruit species characterized by high storability. 'Conference', a pear cultivar very popular on the market, can be stored in a CA room without major losses for half a year. However, for ‘Conference’ storage to be successful, the fruit must be harvested fully developed even before it enters the climatic maturation phase. Harvested too early or too late, pears will taste bad, have physiological disorders and will be poorly storable. Among the various methods used to determine the optimal harvest date, the degree-days method, which relies of the sum of active temperatures, seems to be relatively accurate and easy to apply. During 11 years of study, ‘Conference’ pears were harvested on 4 dates (every 4-5 days) chosen based on measurements and observations, and then, after a six-month storage period, the optimum harvest date was determined. During the growing season, temperature was measured using an automatic weather station to calculate the sum of active temperatures from full bloom to the optimal harvest date. Measurements made after storage were analysed and the sum of active temperatures needed for the proper development of ‘Conference’ pear was calculated to be 2469 degree days. The calculations are very accurate because the dispersion calculated using the standard deviation was only 20 °. The base temperature with the smallest error was 0 °. On the basis of the study results, this method can be recommended as useful for determining the optimal harvest date.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: catheter-associated infection; CAUTI; urinary tract infection; healthcare-associated infection; active drain line clearance; burns; intra-abdominal pressure; measurement
Online: 30 September 2022 (04:13:24 CEST)
OBJECTIVE A quality improvement study to assess catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rate post-implementation of a bladder catheter with integrated active drain line urine clearance and automated intra-abdominal pressure monitoring in a burn intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN Eight-year retrospective before and after study (2015–2022). SETTING A single American Burn Association verified Burn Center with fourteen inpatient beds. PATIENTS Patients meeting criteria for admission to a Burn Center METHODS Retrospective cohort study following the implementation of a novel urine output monitoring system with integrated drain line and urine clearance. Data from a 48-month (from January 2015-December 2018) historical control (period 1) were compared to data from a 28-month (from January 2020 to April 2022) post-implementation period (period 2). Pre- and post-implementation CAUTI event incidences were compared. Charts were reviewed to characterize the patients. RESULTS A total of 42 CAUTIs in 2243 patients were identified using the National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) definition during the analyzed period. There were 40 CAUTI events in period 1 and two CAUTIs in period 2. The incidence of CAUTI events pre-implementation was 0.030 (mean of 10 CAUTI events per year) compared to 0.002 (mean of 1 CAUTI event per year) post-implementation of an automatic drain line clearing UO monitoring system showing a significant reduction in CAUTI events (P<0.01, risk ratio novel vs. gravity bladder catheter 0.071, 95% confidence interval: 0.017-0.294). CONCLUSIONS CAUTIs were reduced in the period following the implementation of a novel urinary catheter system with an integrated active drain line and urine clearance in burn patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0474.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: optimal homotopy asymptotic method; Maxwell--Bloch equations; symmetries; Hamilton--Poisson realization; periodical orbits
Online: 30 September 2022 (03:52:42 CEST)
This work emphasizes some geometrical properties of the Maxwell--Bloch equations. Based on these properties the closed-form solutions of their equations are established. Thus, the Maxwell-Bloch equations are reduced to a nonlinear differential equation depending on an auxiliary unknown function. The approximate analytical solutions were built using the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). A good agreement between the analytical and corresponding numerical results was found. The accuracy of the obtained results is validated through the representative figures. This procedure could be successfully applied for more dynamical systems with geometrical properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0473.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: seminal fluid; seminal plasma; epigenetics; transgenerational plasticity; sperm; paternal effects
Online: 30 September 2022 (03:25:29 CEST)
The evidence supports the occurrence of environmentally induced paternal epigenetic inheritance shaping the offspring phenotype in the absence of direct or indirect paternal care, and the empirical results clearly indicate that sperm epigenetics is one of the major actors mediating these paternal effects. However, sperm often make up only a small fraction of the male ejaculate in animals. Males also have a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, types of small RNAs, and cell-free DNA fragments in their seminal fluid. These molecules are in close contact with reproductive cells, tissues, organs, and other molecules of both males and females during reproduction. Moreover, their production and use are very sensitive to environmental conditions which makes them potential modulators of environmentally and developmentally induced paternal effects on the next generation(s). Although there is some intriguing evidence of seminal fluid-mediated paternal epigenetic effects, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. In this review, I discuss the current evidence regarding the association between seminal fluid and environmentally induced paternal effects, the possible trajectories, and the mechanisms in which seminal fluid can involve to mediate paternal epigenetic inheritance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0472.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis; Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glyco-protein; Immunomodulatory mechanisms
Online: 30 September 2022 (03:22:56 CEST)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been widely used to determine the pathogenesis of the disease and evaluate new treatment strategies for MS. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of oral administration of a Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) in the treatment of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were utilized in three groups (Control group: received PBS orally; prevention group: oral administration of MOG35-55 two weeks before EAE induction; treatment group: oral administration of MOG35-55 after EAE induction. MOG administration, both as prevention and treatment, significantly controlled clinical score, weight loss, CNS inflammation, and demyelination, mainly through the modulation of T cell proliferation, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors, including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, T-bet, and ROR-γt. MOG administration, both as prevention and treatment, also induced anti-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors, including IL-4, TGF-β, GATA-3, and Foxp3. The results showed that oral administration of MOG, both as prevention and treatment, could efficiently control EAE development. Immunomodulatory mechanisms include the induction of Th2 and Treg cells and the suppression of pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0462.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Compressive strength; metakaolin; nanomaterial; refractory; zirconia
Online: 30 September 2022 (03:08:01 CEST)
Geopolymer is an emerging material alternative to Portland cement and has potential as a refractory material. Adding filler in geopolymer material is a strategy to increase the advantages of its physical and mechanical properties. It has been previously reported that adding nanoparticles can increase the compressive strength value, but there is no reported interaction between nanoparticles and geopolymer during the geopolymerization process. This study aims to study the effect of adding nano-zirconia fillers on the physical and mechanical changes of metakaolin-based geopolymers with nano-zirconia fillers. The geopolymer samples were made with 100 g of metakaolin as the base material and nano-zirconia in amounts of 2 gr, 5 gr, 10 gr, and 15 gr. Further characterization was carried out by XRD, FTIR, and SEM-EDX. This study showed that the compressive strength of the MZr05 sample increased significantly by 58.7% compared to the control sample. The test results of the structure and functional groups did not lead to any new compounds formed in the geopolymerization reaction. Therefore, the interaction of metakaolin geopolymer with nano-zirconia only creates an interfacial bonding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0471.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biodegradable lubricating grease; friction; energy; penetration; sugar cane filter cake mud oil; temperature and wear
Online: 30 September 2022 (02:28:30 CEST)
Environment approachable products such as fuels and lubricants are among the best choices in several countries that contain renewable products as alternatives. To protect human life, alternative methods of saving the environment and production balance is needed to reduce the effects of the crisis and the contamination of the Environment. This research concentrated on the Manufacturing and testing of bio- grease from sugar cane filter mud vegetable oil as a lubricant for friction reduction and determining the properties of both bio grease and Mineral oil grease with environmental problems. SC filter mud oil as an alternative use for bio-grease preparation in addition to mineral oil grease. The Testing was accepted to determine the quality of the eco-friendly grease produced. For the preparation of this bio- grease, the SC Filter cake sample is taken from different sugar factory which found in Ethiopia. The sample has a moisture content of 78%. Using this sample first oil is extracted by Soxhlet apparatus, n-hexane solvent and temperature for extraction from 42 -68℃. The maximum temperature and time for extraction of oil were 68 and 7hrs respectively. The extracted oil's physical properties include color, acid value, specific graphite, saponification value, iodine value, density, and viscosity. Finally, the friction behavior in function of time for both grease at identical load, the friction coefficient vs time for SC filter Cake Grease_ Na_ MoS2 and industrial mineral one (I_ Greasily _ MoS2), grease was determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0470.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: Brand rank; content marketing; predictive model; open data policy; e-commerce
Online: 30 September 2022 (02:02:05 CEST)
Background Content marketing is increasingly important for online branding. Brand popularity can be more easily determined online than sales-based measures but is not yet well-explained from a content marketing perspective. Promising predictors are open data syndication policies, connectivity to e-commerce platforms, product reviews, data health, and the depth and width of a brands product portfolio. A predictive content marketing model can help brand owners to understand their e-commerce potential. Methods We used brand popularity (Brand Popularity Rank) and catalog data in combination with product reviews from an independent content aggregator. For all datasets, we selected the overlapping dataset for brand popularity and brand reviews based on a period of 90 days from June 10, 2022, till September 24, 2022 (n = 333 brands). Backward stepwise multiple linear regression was used to develop a predictive content marketing model of the Brand Popularity Rank. Results Through stepwise backward multiple linear regression five highly significant (p < 0.01) predictive factors for brand rank are selected in our content marketing model: the brand’s data syndication policy, the number of connected e-commerce platforms, a brand’s number of products, its number of products per category, and the number of product categories in which it is active. Our model explains 78% of the variance of Brand Popularity Rank and has a good and highly significant fit: F (5, 327) = 233.5, p < 0.00001. Conclusions We conclude that a content marketing model can adequately predict a Brand Popularity Rank based on online popularity. In this model an open content syndication policy, more connected e-commerce platforms, and catalog size, i.e., presence in more categories and more products per category are each related to a better (lower) Brand Popularity Rank score.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0469.v1
Online: 29 September 2022 (12:22:21 CEST)
This paper seeks to explore some of the issues to be welcomed but also warned against in general but also specified from an illustrative sample of ‘smart’ projects that caused outcomes that were neither ‘smart’ nor ‘resilient’. These give pointers to a ‘thirdspace’ as a descriptor of the most advanced application of sustainability thinking regarding relational spatial development planning. This contribution examines difficulties in delivering both ‘smart’ and ‘resilient’ responses of interest or value to citizens confronted with recurring crises that derive directly or with implications for sustainability issues. Identified are constraints and issues acting as obstacles to governance, management ‘layering’ and ‘learning’ causing failures of many weak or never-delivered projects. Critiques of static, or worse ‘magical’ thinking are increasingly invoked in consequence. In the analysis of ‘live cases’ all these problems showed up ‘in real life’. The author was pleased that his mentor, the late UCLA planning theorist Ed Soja’s application of the idea of ‘Thirdspace’ received prescient vindication from the results of this adjudication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0468.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: Diamond; NV centre; ultrashort pulse; scattering; scattering spectra; X-ray diffraction analysis
Online: 29 September 2022 (11:04:56 CEST)
Scattering of ultrashort X-ray pulses (USP) is an important component of the diffraction analysis of matter using modern USP sources. Usually, the specific scattering of such USPs is not taken into account to determine the structure of a substance. Taking into account the specifics of scattering on complex structures will give more accurate results when deciphering complex structures. In this work, it is shown that when X-ray USPs are scattered on diamond with NV centers, it is necessary to take into account the pulse duration. The results obtained can be very different from the widely used theory of diffraction analysis, which confirms the need to take into account the specifics of USP scattering when diagnosing complex structures. It is also shown that scattering spectra are quite sensitive to the concentration of NV centres in the diamond structure and this can be used in diffraction analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0442.v2
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: bison; restoration; socio-ecological processes; indigenous harvest; maximum entropy modelling
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:58:10 CEST)
The historic western edge of bison (Bison bison) range and the ecological processes that caused its formation are frequently debated with important implications for bison restoration across North America. We test the hypothesis that a combination of bottom-up habitat suitability and top-down harvest pressure from humans were important processes in forming the western edge of bison distribution. Using 9,384 historical journal observations from 1691 – 1928, we employ MaxEnt ecological niche modelling to identify suitable bison habitat across the Western Cordillera from bottom-up climatic, land cover, and topographic factors. We then use mixed-effect logistic regression to test if bison occurrence in journal records can be in part explained by the abundance of Indigenous humans, wolves, or grizzly bears, in addition to MaxEnt-derived habitat suitability. We find support for our hypothesis because of the limited suitable habitat in the Rocky Mountains that likely prevented westward bison dispersal from core habitat, and there was a negative relationship between bison occurrence and human harvest pressure. On this basis, we propose that intensive human harvest from large populations in the Western Cordillera, subsidized by other wildlife, salmon, and vegetation resources, is an underappreciated socioecological process that needs to be restored alongside bison populations. Co-managing bison with Indigenous people will also mitigate the adverse effects of overabundant bison and maximize the ecological and cultural benefits of bison restoration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0467.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: GPR survey; Roman Villa of Pisões; Water Supply Location; Combined archaeological data; Roman Lusitania.
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:10:42 CEST)
The Roman villa of Pisões (Beja, Portugal), was part of the Lusitanian colony of Pax Iulia. This place stands out for the predominance of the water element in several structures of the villa, highlighting the balneum and the large natatio, one of the largest known in Roman Hispania. The records of the initial excavations that took place since 1967 do not allow the establishment of clear functionalities of the villa. The University of Évora, owner of the site, conceived an action plan for the requalification and enhancement of the archaeological site. One of the tasks aims to investigate using Applied Geophysics. This work analyses the landscape directly related to the villa, given that it is in the flooded area of a river, with a Roman containment dam. It is uncertain whether the water supply comes from this structure or other nearby springs. The use of ground-penetrating radar, combined with unnamed aerial vehicles, all integrated in a geographic information system, allows us to know the location of underground water connections and create a topographic model with high resolution. Considering all the information, we propose a model for the water transport inside the villa and estimate the location of the water supply.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Schrödinger's equation; Immanuel Kant; Noumena; Metaphysics; Quantum physics
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:07:32 CEST)
Modern physics is situated on the fine line between scientific research and an attempt to answer metaphysical questions. Contemporary scholars such as Henry Stapp and Roger Penrose attempt to create an ontological interpretation of Schrödinger's equation in superposition state and its reduction or collapse to classical state. In this short essay I will try to explore how Immanuel Kant's metaphysics and the concept of noumena can be possibly integrated with quantum physics and Schrödinger's equation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0465.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Spatial; Decision Support; Machine Learning; Automation; Framework; System; SDSS; AutoML; GIS
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:06:18 CEST)
Many spatial decision support systems suffer from user adoption issues in practice due to lack of trust, technical expertise, and resources. Automated machine learning has recently allowed non-experts to explore and apply machine learning models in the industry without requiring abundant expert knowledge and resources. This paper reviews recent literature from 136 papers, and proposes a general framework for integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning to lower major user adoption barriers. Challenges of data quality, model interpretability, and practical usefulness were discussed as general considerations for system implementation. Research opportunities related to spatially explicit models in AutoML, and resource-aware, collaborative/connected, and human-centered systems were also discussed to address these challenges. This paper argues that integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning can not only encourage user adoption, but also mutually benefit research in both fields — bridging human-related and technical advancements for fostering future developments in spatial decision support systems and automated machine learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0301.v9
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Cosmology; Black holes; Dark Energy; Schwarzschild metric
Online: 19 July 2022 (10:32:16 CEST)
This paper proposes a relativistic model of the Universe in which the geometry describes a 4D version of the 2-sheeted hyperboloid that is isotropic, homogeneous in space at a given time and inhomogeneous in time. The radius of this metric is temporal as opposed to spatial. It predicts both a Universe and Anti-Universe moving in opposite directions of time undergoing an expansion phase, followed by a collapsing phase. Using only the current age of the Universe and transition redshift, it predicts the accelerated expansion and it is shown that its Hubble diagram fits currently available supernova and quasar data as well as predicting a Hubble constant $H_0\approx71.6km/s/Mpc$. The angular term of the metric describes time dilation caused by the relativistic kinematic precession effect known as Thomas Precession which can be interpreted as spin about the time dimension. The model also makes two novel predictions: that the early Universe should have structures older than expected due to an increased amount of proper time relative to coordinate time in that era and that the background Universe should appear brighter than current models predict.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0464.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: wheat aleurone; dietary fibre; extraction process; antioxidant; bread; arabinoxylans
Online: 29 September 2022 (09:00:46 CEST)
The wheat aleurone layer is, according to millers, the main bran fraction. It is a source of nutritionally valuable compounds, such as dietary fibres, proteins, minerals and vitamins, that may exhibit health benefits. Despite these advantages, the aleurone layer is scarce on the market, probably due to issues related to its extraction. Many processes exist with some patents, but a choice must be made between the quality and quantity of the resulting product. Nonetheless, its potential has been studied mainly in bread and pasta. While the nutritional benefits of aleurone-rich flour addition to bread agree, opposite results have been obtained concerning its effects on end-product characteristics (namely loaf volume and sensory characteristics), thus ensuing different acceptability responses from consumers. However, the observed negative effects of aleurone-rich flour on bread dough could be reduced by subjecting it to pre- or post-extracting treatments meant to either reduce the particle size of the aleurone’s fibres or to change the conformation of its components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0463.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quantum superposition; EPR paradox; nonlocality; Bell's Theorem; contextuality
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:53:24 CEST)
Euclidean theorems are indisputable in flat spaces, but do not hold in curved spaces. Likewise, Bell’s Theorem is true for jointly distributed variables in Kolmogorov probability spaces. Yet, quantum spin variables are not jointly distributed and cannot coexist in Kolmogorov spaces. They have different qualities and operate by different rules. Therefore, Bell’s Theorem does not entail that quantum theory is non-local. The question remains: what is the origin of quantum contextuality? Other theories (not quantum theory) need nonlocality or super-determinism to make similar predictions, because they cannot violate Bell-type inequalities, but why is quantum theory different? The answer is found in the analysis of quantum superposition, in the context of a much older debate about the ontology of linear wave superposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0461.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Persuasive Technology; Malaria Prevention and Control Support System (MPCSS); active inter-vention tool; Mosquitoes; Malaria Related Deaths (MRDs)
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:49:42 CEST)
Malaria is one of the leading causes of illnesses and deaths in Africa at large and Nigeria in particular, especially amongst pregnant women and children under the age of five years. Our research revealed that though the government has deployed so many intervention systems to contend with this death-causing vector—the mosquitoes, malaria related deaths (MRDs) have continued to increase. This is because people have not sufficiently adopted those intervention systems to protect themselves. Further enquiries into the ineffective compliance of the people to the intervention systems revealed that the interventions are passive in nature. Based on these, we set up three measurable research outcomes to enable us to determine the appropriateness of persuasive technology in solving the malaria problem. We technically avoided a one-size-fits-all design approach and adopted Participatory System Design (PSD) and User-Centered Design (UCD) approaches in our system design methodologies. Well-structured questionnaires were used to extract information from the participants. The data obtained from the research survey was used in modeling the intervention system. The research was conducted in three phases: baseline, development and deployment of an intervention system—the Malaria Prevention and Control Support System (MPCSS), and an evaluation study to determine the performance of the intervention system. The research led to the following achievements: (1) encouraged an increase in the number of people who participated in malaria prevention and control activities by lowering the rate of malaria cases from 96.9% to 68.5% and increasing ownership of mosquito nets from 54% to 85.5%; (2) demonstrated that persuasive technology could be used to increase public awareness and knowledge of a given subject as noted in our evaluation result; and (3) demonstrated that persuasive technology is a veritable active intervention to combat malaria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Machine Learning; Convolutional Neural Networks; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Optical flow method; Blood velocity; Agiography
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:45:13 CEST)
Detailed flow distributions in vascular systems are the key to identifying hemodynamic risk factors for the development and progression of vascular diseases. Although computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been widely used in bioengineering research on hemodynamics predictions, not only are high-fidelity CFD simulations time-consuming and computing-expensive, but also not friendly to clinical applications due to the difficulty of comprehensive numerical calculations. Machine learning (ML) algorithums to estimate the flow field in vascular systems based on the angiographic images of the blood flow using existed diagnostic tools are emerging as a new pathway to facilitate the mapping of hemodynamics. In present work, the dye injection in a water flow was simulated as an analogy of the contrast perfusion in blood flow using CFD. In the simulation, the light passes through the flow field and generates projective images, as an analogy of X-ray imaging. The simulations provide both the ground truth velocity field and the projective images of the flow with dye patterns. A rough velocity field was estimated using the optical flow method (OFM) based on projective images. ML algorithums are then trained using the ground truth CFD data and the OFM velocity estimation as the input. Finally, the interpretable (logistic regression) and deep (neural networks, convolutional neural networks, long short term memory) machine learning models are validated by using parallel in vitro experiments on the same flow setup. The validation results showed that the employed ML model significantly reduced the error rate from 53.5% to 2.5% in average for the v-velocity estimation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0459.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: magnesium; aluminum; additive manufacturing; complex structure; mechanical characteristics; tribological performance
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:28:16 CEST)
Magnesium and Aluminum alloys continue to be important in the context of modern and lightweight technologies. With the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM), components can be produced directly in a net shape, widen up the usage of magnesium and aluminum alloys as well as holding new ideas for the application of unique physical structures made feasible by 3D printing. Laser-based approach, one of the metal additive manufacturing (AM) methods, enables the formation of arbitrary 3D structures. With promising findings, research in this area is advancing quickly, bringing up a variety of potential applications in both the scientific and industrial sectors. Complex structures can now be manufactured easily utilizing AM technologies to meet the pre-requisite objectives like reduced part numbers, greater functionality, and lightweight, among others. AM has the ability to meet demands by lowering costs and speeding up the manufacturing process. Due to their popularity in numerous high-value applications, aluminum, and magnesium alloys are one of the key material systems being researched in the laser-based additive manufacturing approaches. The review here aims to comprehensively examine the additive manufacturing of magnesium and aluminum alloys, highlighting the influence of the laser-based additive manufacturing approach on the mechanical characteristics, microstructure, and tribological performance of magnesium and aluminum alloys.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0458.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: kynurenine pathway; inflammatory biomarkers; inflammation; ADHD; neurobiology; kynurenine
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:11:33 CEST)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that can diminish the quality of life of both children and adults in academic, occupational, and social contexts. The kynurenine pathway (KP) contains a set of enzymatic reactions involved in tryptophan (TRP) degradation. It is known to be associated with the risk of developing ADHD. This review will address the KP and underlying mechanism of inflammation in ADHD. Potential inflammatory biomarkers reported in the most recent studies are summarized. Although a strong neuroimmunological basis has been established due to advances of recent neurobiological research, the pathophysiology of ADHD remains unclear.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0457.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Anti-angiogenic; HIF-1 α; Normalization-window; research; hypoxia; resistance; SBRT; Immunotherapy
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:06:17 CEST)
Multiple biological pathways manifest and latent, meant for human survival, become a liability in cancer cure. With an increasing understanding of innumerable complex paths, cancer progression and development of resistance is no surprise. For the three “vasculature-immune-phenotypic” fundamental changes, hypoxia is the maestro orchestrating the whole gamut of changes (through the master manipulator - HIF-1 α), simultaneously transactivating hundreds of pro-angiogenic genes. Such a complex molecular bio-network begs the question, “Is our cancer research caught in such a tangled web that we have lost sight of the Spider?”. Hypoxia is this Spider weaving compensatory webs with every intervention/ obstruction. Anti-angiogenic (AAG) research has been conducted mainly in silos – exploring independent paths. This review conceptualizes a convergence of a multitude of research worldwide to a single theme of normalizing vasculature as a primary baseline for overcoming resistance to AAGs or their combinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Marnaviridae; algal bloom; algal viruses; icosahedral viruses; ssRNA viruses
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:53:23 CEST)
Marnaviridae viruses are abundant algal viruses that regulate the dynamics of algal blooms in aquatic environments. They employ a narrow host range because they merely lyse their own algal host species. This host-specific lysis is thought to correspond to the unique transmission mechanism of the Marnaviridae viruses. Here, we present the atomic structures of the full and empty capsids of Chaetoceros socialis forma radians RNA virus 1 built in 3.0 Å and 3.1 Å cryo-electron microscopy maps. The empty capsid structure and the structural variability provide insights on its assembly and uncoating intermediates. In conjunction with the previously reported atomic model of the Chaetoceros tenuissimus RNA virus type II capsid, we have identified the common and diverse structural features of the VP1 surface between the Marnaviridae viruses. We have also tested the potential usage of AlphaFold2 for structural prediction of the VP1s and a subsequent structural phylogeny for classifying Marnaviridae viruses by their hosts. These findings will be crucial for inferring the host-specific transmission mechanism in Marnaviridae viruses, which is decisive for monitoring and possibly regulating the occurrence and disappearance of algae blooms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0455.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: systems biology; machine learning; surrogate model
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:17:28 CEST)
Mechanistic models have been used for centuries to describe complex interconnected processes, including biological ones. As the scope of these models has widened, so have their computational demands. This complexity can limit their suitability when running many simulations or when real-time results are required. Surrogate machine learning models can be used to approximate the behaviour of complex mechanistic models, and once built, their computational demands are several orders of magnitude lower. This paper provides an overview of the relevant literature, both from an applicability and a theoretical perspective. For the latter, the paper focuses on the design and training of the underlying machine learning models. Application-wise, we show how machine learning surrogates have been used to approximate different mechanistic models. We present a perspective on how these approaches can be applied to models representing biological processes with potential industrial applications (e.g., metabolism and whole-cell modelling) and show why surrogate machine learning models may hold the key to making the simulation of complex biological models possible using a typical desktop computer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0454.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: CRISPR-Cas technology; pest management; plant stress resistance; insect resistance
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:08:41 CEST)
Global crop yield and food security are being threatened by phytophagous insects. Innovative methods are required to increase agricultural output while reducing reliance on hazardous synthetic insecticides. It appears to be quite effective at reducing production costs and boosting farm profitability to use the ground-breaking CRISPR-Cas technology to create plants that are insect resistant. In contrast, this new technique can modify an insect's genome to either produce gene drive or get beyond an insect's tolerance to various insecticides. This paper reviews and critically discusses the use of CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology in long-term insect pest management. The emphasis of this review is on the prospective uses of the CRISPR-Cas system for insect stress management in crop production by creating genome-edited crops and insects. The potential and difficulties of using CRISPR-Cas technology to reduce pest stress in crop plants are critically examined and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0453.v1
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:05:29 CEST)
Introduction: Cancer is a group of diseases caused by uncontrolled and abnormal cell growth caused by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. Based on data from Dr Kariadi Hospital in 2021, lung cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer were 1,259 cases, this incident increased significantly from 2020. Based on the data obtained, the sequence of lung cancer cases was 241, breast cancer 623 , and cervical cancer 395. Both cancer and its treatment can weaken the patient's immune system, this is what makes cancer sufferers have a risk of anxiety and depression. Objective: To find out the description of anxiety and depression in cancer patients at RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang. Methods: The design of this study was descriptive quantitative, with a population of 56 patients and calculated using a stratified random sampling formula so that a sample of 49 respondents was obtained. The instrument or measuring instrument in this study used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Most cancer patients experienced mild anxiety and did not experience depression or at normal levels, from the number of respondents as many as 49 respondents, 27 respondents experienced mild anxiety (55.1%) and did not experience depression or at normal levels as many as 22 respondents (44, 9%). Suggestion: It is hoped that it can provide input for nurses to provide counseling to patients as an effort to reduce the anxiety and depression felt by patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Flooding from Groundwater; FEFLOW; Groundwater Modelling; Rise in River stage, Super Mesh
Online: 29 September 2022 (05:53:43 CEST)
Groundwater (GW) flooding mechanisms differ from river flooding both spatially and temporally, and preventative methods against groundwater flooding must take this into account. Although groundwater flooding caused by river water rise occurs seldom, it can occasionally become severe and last for a long time if the river is significantly flooded. In the southwest portion of the research domain, Friedrichshafen with a few urban communities, the level of the groundwater table was discovered to be roughly 1 m below the surface. It was discovered that the urban settlement area only has one-story buildings. In the study region, it is typical for the single-story building's foundation bottom level to extend up to a depth of about 1.5 meters. Therefore, flood mitigation methods are taken into account for the southwest portion of the study region. The installation of a pumping well, drainage, and a barrier in the affected area are three different flood control strategies that are taken into consideration for the study area. From a technical and cost-benefit perspective, installing a pumping well that withdraws water and lowers the groundwater table was found to be the most effective flood control measure locally in a small region (e.g., 1km x 1km). By contrast, removing groundwater by building drainage and barriers was also shown to be ineffective to lower the groundwater table over an extended region and was significantly more expensive than the installation of wells. Additionally, when river flooding is taken into account compared to the default scenario where no intake of water from the river is included along the western border of the study area, it is discovered that the spread of pollution is significantly greater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: HIV; tobacco; electronic cigarettes; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:54:56 CEST)
People with HIV (PWH) experience higher rates of cardiovascular events (CVEs) compared with the general population. A substantial body of evidence supports that select biomarkers of inflammation (soluble CD14 [sCD14], soluble CD163 [sCD163], highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and coagulation (D-dimer) are elevated in PWH and related to increased rates of CVEs. Our previous work showed that smoking compared with nonsmoking was associated with significantly elevated sCD14, a biomarker of monocyte activation. We aimed to explore the effect of electronic cigarette (EC) provision on inflammatory biomarkers in PWH who smoked daily and then switched to an EC. Nineteen PWH were enrolled in a pilot study in which an EC and e-liquid were provided weekly or 8 weeks. Blood specimens for inflammatory biomarker analysis were obtained at baseline (BL) and at week 8. Biomarker levels were high at BL and did not differ significantly at week 8. There were small nonsignificant reductions in sCD163 and CRP levels. Non-significant increases in IL-6, D-dimer and sCD14 levels were also noted. Use of ECs for 8 weeks does not appear to significantly increase or decrease inflammatory biomarker levels in SWH. Further research with larger samples and a control group is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0450.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Heslington brain; intrinsically disordered protein; intrinsically disordered region; binding-induced folding; disorder-to-order transition
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:49:27 CEST)
Proteomic analysis revealed the preservation of many proteins in the “Heslington brain” (which is at least 2,600-year-old brain tissue uncovered within the skull excavated in 2008 from a pit in Heslington, Yorkshire, England). Five of these proteins (“main proteins”), heavy, medium, and light neurofilament proteins (NFH, NFM, and NFL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and myelin basic (MBP) protein are engaged in the formation non-amyloid protein aggregates, such as intermediate filaments and myelin sheath. We used a wide spectrum of bioinformatics tools to evaluate the prevalence of functional disorder in several related sets of proteins, such as “main proteins” and their 44 interactors, as well as all other protein identified in the Heslington brain. These analyses revealed that all five “main proteins”, half of their interactors and almost one third of the Heslington brain proteins are expected to be mostly disordered. Furthermore, most of the remaining proteins are expected to contain sizable disordered regions. This is in contrary the expected substantial (if not complete) elimination of the disordered proteins from the Heslington brain. Therefore, it seems that the intrinsic disorder of NFH, NFM, NFL, GFAP, and MBP, their interactors and many other proteins might play a crucial role in preserving the Heslington brain by forming tightly folded brain protein aggregates, in which different parts are glued together via the disorder-to-order transitions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0449.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: pulsed power plasma discharge; electromagnetic; COMSOL; numerical simulation
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:32:36 CEST)
The scope of this work was part of our previous research on Pulsed Power Plasma Stimulation Technique. Electromagnetic fields generated during a pulsed power plasma discharge were simulated using a finite element method in the COMSOL RF module. The field distributions were calculated during and after the pulse. The current paper takes advantage of prior work measuring and modeling the current distribution in the plasma arc. Agreement with laboratory experimental measurements provides support for extension of the model to reservoir scale. The validated model was used to quantify the signal attenuation level in different medium environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0448.v1
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:27:46 CEST)
Deposition/printing of materials with sub-1 μm precision and size (cross sections) is required for optical and electrical micro-devices. Crystalline c-ITO (Indium tin oxide) nanostructures were patterned on glass with a precision that formed gaps of 20-50 nm between individual disks or lines of ∼ 250 nm diameter or width. The absorbed energy density [J/cm3] followed the second order dependence on pulse energy. This facilitated high resolution and precision for nanoscale laser writing at the 515 nm laser wavelength. Patterns for optical elements such as circular gratings and micro-disks were laser printed using ITO as a resist. Unexposed amorphous a-ITO was chemically removed in aqueous 1% vol. HF solution. This use of a-ITO as solid-resist is promising for metamaterial and micro-optical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0030.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: base-isolated building, irregularity, angle of seismic incidence, pulse-like ground motion, energy input
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:20:20 CEST)
In general, isolators and dampers used in seismically isolated buildings are designed to be isotropic in any horizontal direction. However, in the case of buildings with plan irregularities, their nonlinear responses depend on the direction of seismic loading. To discuss the influence of the angle of seismic incidence (ASI) on the nonlinear response of irregular building structures, it is important to define the angle of the critical axis of the horizontal ground motion. One possible choice is the “principal axis of ground motion” proposed by Arias (1970). However, because this principal axis is independent of the natural period of a structure, it could be complicated to use for seismically isolated structures with long natural periods. In this study, the influence of the ASI of long-period pulse-like seismic input on an irregular base-isolated building is investigated. First, the angle of the principal axis of ground motion is defined in terms of the cumulative energy input. Then, a nonlinear time-history analysis of a five-story irregular base-isolated building is performed using 10 long-period pulse-like ground motion records considering various ASIs. The results show that, compared with the principal axis of ground motion proposed by Arias, defining the principal axis of ground motion in terms of the cumulative energy input is more suitable for discussions concerning the influence of the ASI on the response of an irregular base-isolated building.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0309.v9
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: obesity; body weight regulation; macronutrients; energy balance theory; mass balance model; paradigm shift; living review
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:18:08 CEST)
According to known laws of physics, chronic positive mass balance is the actual etiology of obesity, not positive energy balance. The relevant physical law in terms of body mass regulation is the Law of Conservation of Mass, not the Law of Conservation of Energy. A recently proposed mass balance model (MBM) describes the temporal evolution of body weight and body composition under a wide variety of feeding experiments, and it seems to provide a highly accurate description of the very best experimental human feeding data. By shifting to a mass balance paradigm of obesity, a deeper understanding of this disease may follow in the near future. The purpose of this living review is to present the core issues of the upcoming paradigm shift as well as some practical applications related to the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0438.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Dilation; Indefinite inner product space; Module
Online: 29 September 2022 (02:48:49 CEST)
Dilation of contractions on Hilbert space and Banach space is classical. Recently, dilations theory has been put in the setting of sets, vector spaces, p-adic Hilbert spaces and modules. In this paper, we derive important dilation results for self-adjoint morphisms on indeﬁnite inner product modules over *-rings of characteristic 2. More precisely, we prove indeﬁnite inner product versions of Halmos dilation, Egervary N-dilation and Sz.-Nagy dilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0059.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: Higgs mass; Group Theory; Hypothetical Particles
Online: 28 September 2022 (15:52:07 CEST)
Starting from the SU(2) group of weak interactions in the presence of Electric Charge Swap (ECS) symmetry, we show that ordinary and non-regular (ECS) leptons are related by the ECS rotational group SO(3). We find that many Standard Model (SM) algebras depend on the sin of the angle θs of the ECS rotational group SO (3). We call these ECSM algebras. Furthermore, the break of the gauge symmetry of the SM groupoid gives the massive ECS particle. We find that the ECS particle masses are related with the SM particle masses by sinθs . We also investigate the finite subgroups of the ECS Möbius transformations. We find that sinθs could be derived from the ECS dihedral group DF, which refers to the symmetry of the fermionic polygon (F-gon). The average value of the anchor of the SM algebroid depends on the fermionic Catalan numbers (CF). Finally, we find that the ECS physics at loop level differs the SM physics. The ECSM mass is suppressed by the CF numbers. For 24 fermions, the calculated one-loop radiative correction to the bare Higgs mass µ is 125GeV—a value very close to the experimental one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0447.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: change-point analysis; weak spots; spectral analysis; ambient noise RMS; georadar attribute
Online: 28 September 2022 (15:49:50 CEST)
The seasonal soil losses and frequent shallow landslides in the Cerrado region of Brazil have high destructive potential with social, economic, and climatic implications. As fluvial systems substantially drive such environmental threats; therefore, it is essential to conduct geological site characterization and continuously monitor the seasonal erosive potentials of the rivers and streams. However, in such unstable and sensitive conditions, traditional intrusive investigation approaches may not be safe; therefore, the geophysical investigation might offer a good alternative. For the present study, a geophysical approach (particularly the seismic method) was adopted to examine the seismic footprints and GPR site characterization of a seasonal stream in the Rua do Matto, Brasilia, Brazil. The monitoring was conducted (at a safe distance) on the intermittent stream over several durations of dry (no rain) and rainy (flood) conditions. After pre-processing the raw data, the power spectral density (PSDs) was computed as a function of several variables (wind speed), time-frequency spectrograms, ambient noise displacement root mean square (RMS), the single station horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) curves. In addition, change-point analysis was used for comparing the ambient noise with wind speed (both were well correlated). The GPR amplitude and waveform variation features were attributed to the subsurface material and the presence of boulders in the floodplain as well as regions (low coherence value) susceptible to erosion (weak spots). The river flows were evident on the mean probabilistic PSD values, spectrograms, HVSR curves and different patterns of RMS displacements (at selective ranges of frequency). The multi-peaks emerged on the HVSR curve are further analyzed for changes in amplitude, width and troughs possibly related to river activities and soil moisture due to rain. The approach provides the basis for non-destructive monitoring tools enabling the detection of 'seismic signatures' and weak spots of the fluvial channels for improving their environmental management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0446.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: petroleum; oil market; oil; statistics
Online: 28 September 2022 (15:35:31 CEST)
The energy matrix worldwide has been going through difficulties in its discussions - such as irregular exploration, inefficient public policies, and arbitrariness concerning diplomatic and political definitions of those involved in this market. This work's general objective consists in analyzing associations and statistical inferences of the largest world oil producers, assimilating the contributions and singularities of this market from 1993 to 2020. Based on the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), it was possible to identify the possible inferences and contributions of the ten largest oil producers in the world in more than two decades using statistical analysis through correlation, regression, and statistical analysis of variables. According to the research and the literature on the area, the oil market proposes support to its discussions, mainly in its productive approaches. It is possible to identify this market as a solid link to geopolitical actions, distributing the possibilities through economic bias and socio-cultural and historical factors on a global level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0445.v1
Online: 28 September 2022 (15:30:38 CEST)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that, occasionally, may spread to the central nervous system (CNS), being the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis. One of the main neurovirulence factors of HSV-1 is the protein ICP34.5 that, although initially seemed to be relevant only in neuronal infections, it can also promote viral replication in non-neuronal cells. New ICP34.5 functions have been discovered during the recent years, and some of them have been questioned. This review describes the mechanisms of ICP34.5 to control cellular antiviral responses and debates its most controversial functions. One of the most discussed roles of ICP34.5 is autophagy inhibition. Although autophagy is considered a defense mechanism against viral infections, current evidence suggests that this antiviral function is only one side of the coin. Different types of autophagic pathways interact with HSV-1 impairing or enhancing the infection, and both the virus and the host cell modulate these pathways to tip the scales in its favor. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the interplay between autophagy and HSV-1, focusing on the intricate role of ICP34.5 in the modulation of this pathway to gain the battle against cellular defenses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0444.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: parity-time symmetry; reciprocity; Green’s matrix; metamaterials
Online: 28 September 2022 (13:27:56 CEST)
Inspired by recent developments in wave propagation and scattering experiments with parity-time (PT) symmetric materials, we discuss reciprocity and representation theorems for 3D inhomogeneous PT-symmetric materials and indicate some applications. We start with a unified matrix-vector wave equation which accounts for acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic, elastodynamic, poroelastodynamic, piezoelectric and seismoelectric waves. Based on the symmetry properties of the operator matrix in this equation, we derive unified reciprocity theorems for wave fields in 3D arbitrary inhomogeneous media and 3D inhomogeneous media with PT-symmetry. These theorems form the basis for deriving unified wave field representations and relations between reflection and transmission responses in such media. Among the potential applications are interferometric Green’s matrix retrieval and Marchenko-type Green’s matrix retrieval in PT-symmetric materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0443.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Eye Tracking; Magnetic tracker; Magnetic Sensor; Sensor Array; eye motion; Donders' Law; Listing's law
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:30:28 CEST)
An innovative wearable eye tracker based on a permanent-magnet marked corneal lens is analyzed in terms of the information that can be retrieved from the tracking parameters. We demonstrate that, despite missing information due to the axial symmetry of the measured field, physiological constraints or measurement conditions make possible to infer complete eye-pose data. The results show that the instrumentation considered is suitable as a new low-invasive medical diagnostics for the characterization of ocular movement and associated disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0442.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: TDP-43; Liquid-liquid phase separation; Solution-state NMR
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:22:40 CEST)
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of proteins has been found ubiquitously in eukaryotic cells, critical in the controlling of many biological processes through forming a temporary condensed phase with different bimolecular components. TDP-43 is recruited to stress granules in cells and is the main component of TDP-43 granules and proteinaceous amyloid inclusions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 low complexity domain (LCD) is able to demix in solution forming the protein condensed droplets. The molecular interactions regulating its LLPS were investigated at the protein fusion equilibrium stage, where the droplets stopped growing. We found the molecules in the droplet were still liquid-like but with enhanced intermolecular helix-helix interaction in the LCD. The protein would start to aggregate after about 200 minutes of lag time and aggregate slower than at the condition when the protein does not phase separate or the molecules have a reduced intermolecular helical interaction. A structural transition intermediate towards protein aggregation was also discovered involving a decrease of the intermolecular helix-helix interaction and a reduction in the helicity. Therefore, LLPS and the intermolecular helical interaction could help maintain the stability of TDP-43 LCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: biliary atresia; complications; clavien-dindo classification; comprehensive complication index; cci
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:19:37 CEST)
Introduction Kasai procedure in children with biliary atresia (BA) is associated with several complications in the short-term. The Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) is a validated metric in adult surgery for the analysis of complication and morbidity in surgical patients. We aimed to analyze the CCI for the first time in BA infants and to corelate its association with the outcome. Material and Methods Retrospective review of medical records of infants with type III BA undergoing Kasai procedure between January 2011 and December 2021 at our institution. All unexpected events were ranked according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and the CCI per patient was subsequently calculated. Clavien-Dindo grades, individual events, the CCI and the total event number per patient were correlated with the one- and two-year outcome post Kasai. Results 131 events were identified in 101 patients (range 0 – 11 per patient). Forty-four Grade I (33.6%), 67 Grade II (51.1%), 18 Grade III (13.7%) and two sentinel events [> Grade IV] (1.5%) were documented according to Clavien-Dindo, including one death in a cardiac-associated BA patient. None of the complications correlated significantly with a poor outcome. Sixty-three (62.4%) CCI were calculated (range 0 – 100). The mean CCI during the in-patient treatment post Kasai, was significantly higher in patients with a poorer outcome compared to patients with native liver survival at one- and two-year follow-up (22.7 21.7 vs 13.2 18.1; p=0.02). Conclusion Not the severity of complications, but the accumulation of numerous events related to Kasai procedure are associated with a poorer outcome. Therefore, the CCI is an excellent instrument for the postoperative morbidity assessment of BA patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: infectious diseases; chikungunya; antiviral; flavonoids; fisetin; toll-like receptors
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:15:36 CEST)
In the chronic phase of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, excessive inflammation manifests as incapacitating joint pain and prolonged arthritis. Arthritis resulted from a large influx of infiltrating immune cells driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines originating from the toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate antiviral response. This study investigated fisetin's ability to modulate TLR-mediated antiviral responses against CHIKV in Huh7 cells. The CHIKV inhibitory potential of fisetin was assessed by plaque-forming unit assay, virus yield reduction assay, and bright-field microscopy (cytopathic effect, immunofluorescence). Fisetin’s modulatory potential on TLR-mediated antiviral response was evaluated by immunofluorescence assay (expression of TLR proteins), qRT-PCR (mRNA level of antiviral genes), human cytokine array, and immunoblotting of key transcription factors. The present study showed fisetin induced the expression of the antiviral genes at an early time-point by promoting the phosphorylation of IRF3 and IRF7. Fisetin reduced excessive inflammatory cytokine responses in CHIKV-infected Huh7 cells by impeding the over-phosphorylation of NF-κB. Fisetin also reduced CHIKV-induced cytopathic effects in CHIKV-infected Huh7 cells. Altogether, our study suggests that fisetin modulates TLR-mediated antiviral responses by affecting the CHIKV-induced inflammatory responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: COVID19; SARS-CoV-2 virus; Oro-nasopharyngeal; fecal; vaccination; asym-symptomatic; rapid diagnostic test
Online: 28 September 2022 (11:51:21 CEST)
Coronavirus is a disease caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which emerged as a global pandemic in 2019 from Wuhan, China. Since its emergence, it has caused immense suffering to human life, 6.27 million lives have been lost, movement curtailed and social dynamics disrupted. The golden standard for getting samples for SARS-CoV-2 detection is through oral- nasopharyngeal swab, this method of sample collection is invasive and uncomfortable, thus stigmatized the general population, and thereby impeded the progress of controlling the spread through mass testing. Being a contact disease, mechanisms to encourage mass testing is key to reduce the spread. This study thus developed a complimentary sample type to test for SARS-CoV-2, the use of human feces. Fecal samples were collected from 100 asym-symptomatic individuals suspected to be infected with COVID-19, virus RNA was then extracted and profiled through Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). The antigen rapid diagnostic test revealed high positivity rate of 44%, but the real time polymerase chain reaction results on nasopharyngeal and fecal samples revealed a significant variation, high number of the patients tested positive with stool samples compared to the nasopharyngeal swabs, with 43 and 37%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals; however, the symptomatic registered a higher positivity of 25% compared to 20% among the asymptomatic patients. Vaccination only lowered the risk of infection, fully and partially vaccinated lowered the infection level to 10% compared to 20% among the unvaccinated. Finally, gender parity in relation to COVID19 was evaluated, more females (56%) compared to males were recruited in this study, out of which (20; 43.4%) were positive, and 26 (56.6%) were negative based on fecal RT-qPCR outcomes. Based on the outcome of this study, rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT) however cheap and or fast does not provide accurate information, moreover, the virus does not stay longer within the Oro-nasopharyngeal region, thus the invalid or negative results, thus use of feces should be adopted as a confirmatory test to ascertain the COVID19 status of an individual.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0437.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Semen; hesperidin; cryopreservation; oxidative stress; antioxidant; ram
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:35:03 CEST)
We conducted this study to determine the potential cryopreservative effects of different hesperidin (vitamin P; HSP) doses on ram semen after freeze-thawing. Semen samples were obtained from Sönmez rams by an artificial vagina. The samples were divided into six groups: control, 10, 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg/mL HSP (C, HSP10, HSP50, HSP100, HSP250, and HSP500, respectively). At the end of the study, sperm motility and kinetic parameters, plasma membrane acrosome integrity (PMAI), high mitochondrial membrane potential (HMMP), viability, lipid peroxidation levels (LPL), chromatin damage, oxidant parameters, and antioxidant parameters were assayed. None of the doses of HSP added to the semen extender showed any enhancing effect on progressive motility compared to C (p>0.05). In fact, HSP500 had negative effects (p<0.05). Moreover, PMI activities were the highest at the HSP10 dose, while LPL values were the lowest (p<0.05). The doses of HSP10 and HSP50 added to the Tris extender medium showed positive effects on spermatozoon chromatin damage. Consequently, we can say that HSP doses used in this study are not effective on semen progressive motility, but the HSP10 dose is effective on PMAI and chromatin damage by reducing LPL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0436.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Uncertainty; Climate risk assessment; Impact chain; Climate change; Risk; Tourism risk; Heat index
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:23:03 CEST)
The Impact Chain framework for risk assessment has proven to be a robust and effective It is very useful to set up the conceptual framework associated to a given risk and allows accommodating naturally the different components that shape that However, the operationalization of the impact chain may not be straightforward, in particular due to the inherent uncertainties associated to the selected indicators and the assigned In this paper, we introduce an extension to the Impact Chain framework that allows to consider uncertainties in the different components of the risk In the framework of the UNCHAIN project, a web-based tool has been developed to ease the task of implementing that The tool has been applied to a case study on the loss of tourist attractiveness due to heat stress conditions on the Balearic island, Spain, to illustrate how uncertainties in different components of the impact chain can affect the robustness of the final risk Also, the tool provides an estimate of the sensitivity of the final risk to each component, which can be used to guide risk mitigation Finally, a proposal for the validation of the risk assessment is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Federated Learning Strategies; Relational-Regularized Autoencoder; Time-Series Classification
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:06:58 CEST)
Increasingly measured data in the context of smart cities can be used to develop new and innovative business models to increase efficiency and the value of life. A time-series classification algorithm can support to automatize many different processes such as forecasting services. In order to ensure data security and privacy, Federated Learning trains a global model collaboratively on multiple clients. Having different data-distributions and data-quantities across participating clients, neural networks suffer from slow convergence and overfitting. Based on different data-distributions, data-quantities and number of clients, we develop and evaluate different data-clustering strategies to update global model weights in comparison to the state of the art. We use public time-series data, generate various synthetic datasets and train a Relational-Regularized Autoencoder for classification purposes. Our results show an improvement of model performance concerning generalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0434.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Apis cerana; A. c. koreana; population; gene vitellogenin; genetic structure; nucleotide polymorphism; adaptation
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:02:03 CEST)
Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, are very important honey species for agriculture in Asian countries. In recent decades, A. cerana populations have sharply declined in all Asian countries as a result of Sacbrood Virus infection and have now recovered to their original size. It can change the genetic structure of local populations of A. cerana. We used the nuclear gene Vitellogenin VG to assess the genetic structure of local populations of A. cerana and the signature of adaptive selection. We performed a population genetic analysis of the honey bees A. cerana from South Korea in comparison with A. cerana samples from Russia, Japan, Nepal, and China. The sequences of the gene VG of a closely related honey bee species, A. mellifera, from India and Poland were used as outgroup samples. A comparative analysis of northern and southern A. cerana populations was performed. The signatures of positive adaptive selection were found in the local population of A. cerana. We performed the Tajima's neutrality D test for A. cerana populations from different local populations based on the gene VG exon sequences. All A. cerana populations showed signs of population size expansion following the possible recent decline in population sizes. The local populations of A. c. koreana were subdivided according to their geographical distribution into southern, northern, and central Korean clusters. The gene VG exon sequences can be used as informative markers for monitoring the changes in genetic structure and adaptation to the environment processes in A. cerana populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0433.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Dilation, von Neumann inequality, Non-Archimedean valued field, p-adic Hilbert space, Contraction, Unitary operator
Online: 28 September 2022 (07:13:18 CEST)
We introduce the notion of p-adic magic contraction on p-adic Hilbert space. We derive p-adic Halmos dilation, p-adic Egervary N-dilation, p-adic von Neumann inequality and p-adic Sz.-Nagy dilation for p-adic magic contraction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0432.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: eye evolution; opsin; photoreceptor; phototransduction; visual cycle
Online: 28 September 2022 (05:12:35 CEST)
Understanding the molecular underpinnings of the evolution of complex (multi-part) systems is a fundamental topic in biology. One unanswered question is the extent to which similar or different genes and regulatory interactions underlie similar complex systems across species. Animal eyes and phototransduction (light detection) are outstanding systems to investigate this question because some of the genetics underlying these traits are well-characterized in model organisms. However, comparative studies using non-model organisms are also necessary to understand the diversity and evolution of these traits. Here, we compare the characteristics of photoreceptor cells, opsins, and phototransduction cascades in diverse taxa, with particular focus on cnidarians. In contrast to the common theme of deep homology, whereby similar traits develop mainly using homologous genes, comparisons of visual systems - especially in non-model organisms - are beginning to highlight a “deep diversity” of underlying components, illustrating how variation can underlie similar complex systems across taxa. Although using candidate genes from model organisms across diversity was a good starting point to understand the evolution of complex systems, unbiased genome-wide comparisons and subsequent functional validation will be necessary to uncover unique genes that comprise complex systems of non-model groups to better understand biodiversity and its evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: blast furnace sludges; steelmaking sludges; carbothermal reduction; Waelz-kiln process; zinc; zinc oxide
Online: 28 September 2022 (04:30:09 CEST)
The prospects of processing blast furnace and steelmaking sludge using Waelz process in a laboratory rotary kiln is shown. The influence of varying thermal treatment modes, furnace atmosphere and type of reducing agents on the level of zinc reduction from sludges was analyzed. In general, the blast furnace sludge contains a high portion of iron (approx.48 wt. %) and can be reused as a charge after satisfactory zinc reduction. It was found that N- atmosphere and high content of the graphite or coke oven reducing agent in combination with high temperature can reduce the content of Zn in the sludge to 0.08 wt. % at 1200 °C for mixture of steelmaking and blast furnace sludge. A significant reduction in the Zn content to 0.66 wt. % occurs at 1100 °C. The content and type of reducing agent play an important role; graphite has shown a better reducing ability compared to coke oven dust. When nitrogen is used, zinc is reduced even without an additional reducing agent, since the carbon contained in the sludge is made use of for the reduction. In an air atmosphere, without the use of a reducing agent, there was no reduction in the Zn content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; menstruation; pregnancy outcomes; Influenza vaccines; VAERS
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:50:35 CEST)
Objectives: Assess rates of adverse events (AE) after COVID-19 vaccines experienced by women of reproductive age, focusing on pregnancy and menstruation, using data collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database. Design: Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting: US and global entries in US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). Participants CDC VAERS entries from January 1, 1998 to June 30, 2022. Interventions: None. Main Outcome and Measures: A proportional reporting ratio analysis is performed using data in the VAERS system comparing adverse events (AE) reported post COVID-19 vaccines with that of post-Influenza vaccines. Results: COVID-19 vaccines, when compared to the Influenza vaccines are associated with a significant increase in AE with all proportional reporting ratios of > 2.0: menstrual abnormality, miscarriage, fetal chromosomal abnormalities, fetal malformation, fetal cystic hygroma, fetal cardiac disorders, fetal arrhythmia, fetal cardiac arrest, fetal vascular mal-perfusion, fetal growth abnormalities, fetal abnormal surveillance, fetal placental thrombosis, low amniotic fluid, and fetal death/stillbirth (all p values were much smaller than 0.05). When normalized by time-available, doses-given, or persons-received, all COVID-19 vaccine AE far exceed the safety signal on all recognized thresholds. Conclusions: Pregnancy and menstrual abnormalities are significantly more frequent following COVID-19 vaccinations than that of Influenza vaccinations. A worldwide moratorium on the use of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy is advised until randomized prospective trials document safety in pregnancy and long-term follow-up in offspring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0428.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Innovation; Informal competition; credit access; Business plan; emerging countries
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:39:39 CEST)
This paper examines the influence of informal competition on SMEs innovation in the Eastern European transition economies. It investigates whether credit constraints mediate this relation. SMEs innovation is presented through four measures: Product innovation, Process innovation, Radical innovation and Green innovation. Using the BEEPs VI that covers the period from 2018-2020, we show that informal competition affects positively the product, process and radical innovation. Yet, it has a non-significant effect on green innovation. Besides, the informal sector increases SMEs credit constraints, which indirectly leads to less corporate innovation. The negative indirect effect restrains the positive direct effect. Hence, a partial mediation effect of credit constraints on the informal competition and the innovation proxies is reported with the exception of green innovation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Sars-CoV-2; Natural immunity; Cellular immunity; Vaccine-induced immunity; Hybrid immunity; Cross-reactivity; Omicron
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:38:36 CEST)
Background: Both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity to COVID-19 may be useful to reduce the mortality/morbidity of this disease, but still a lot of controversy exists. Aims: This narrative review analyzes the literature about: a) the duration of natural immunity; b) cellular immunity; c) cross-reactivity; d) the duration of post-vaccination immune protection; e) the probability of reinfection and its clinical manifestations in the recovered patients; f) comparisons between vaccinated and unvaccinated in the possible reinfections; g) the role of hybrid immunity; h) the effectiveness of natural and vaccine-induced immunity against Omicron variant; i) comparative incidence of adverse effects after vaccination in recovered individuals vs. COVID-19-naïve subjects. Material and Methods: through multiple search engines we investigated COVID-19 literature related to the aims of the review, published since April 2020 through July 2022, including also the previous articles pertinent to the investigated topics. Results: nearly 900 studies were collected and 238 pertinent articles were included. It was highlighted that the vast majority of individuals after COVID-19 develop a natural immunity both of cell-mediated and humoral type, which is effective over time and provides protection against both reinfection and serious illness. Vaccine-induced immunity was shown to decay faster than natural immunity. In general, the severity of the symptoms of reinfection is significantly lower than in the primary infection, with a lower degree of hospitalizations (0.06%) and an extremely low mortality. Conclusions: this narrative review regarding a vast number of articles highlighted the valuable protection induced by the natural immunity after COVID-19, which seems comparable or superior to the one induced by anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccination of the unvaccinated COVID-19-recovered subjects may not be indicated. Further research is needed in order to: a) measure the durability of immunity over time; b) evaluate both the impacts of Omicron-5 on vaccinated and healed subjects and of hybrid immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0410.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: plastic; tyres; waste; greenhouses; remote sensing; Copernicus; Sentinel-1; Sentinel-2
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:32:19 CEST)
The detection of waste plastics in the marine and terrestrial environment using satellite Earth Observation data offers the possibility of large-scale mapping, and reducing on-the-ground manual investigation. In addition, costs are kept to a minimum by utilizing free-to-access Copernicus data. A Machine Learning based classifier was developed to run on Sentinel-1 and -2 data. In support of the training and validation, a dataset was created with terrestrial and aquatic cases by manually digitizing varying landcover classes alongside plastics under the sub-categories of greenhouses, plastic, tyres and waste sites. The trained classifier, including an Artificial Neural Network and post-processing decision tree, was verified using five locations encompassing these different forms of plastic. Although exact matchups are challenging to digitize, the performance has generated high accuracy statistics, and the resulting land cover classifications have been used to map the occurrence of plastic waste in aquatic and terrestrial environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0427.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: sea cucumber; enhancement; Holothuria scabra; sea ranching
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:24:25 CEST)
Holothuria scabra Jaeger 1833, known as sandfish visually, Its visible external body has a soft, flexible texture. Sandfish is included in the Echinodermata phylum and Holothuroidea class, which has an important ecological and economic role. This research proposes to decide the suitability site in an intermediate culture model of sea ranching harvest type based on ecological, socio-cultural and Karimunjawa National Park zoning plan. Data collected has done in March 2020, November 2020 and August 2021. The data analysed on the environmental suitability level was based on several essential criteria matrices used by ArcGIS 10.8.2. They were four classes performed (high suitable, suitable that is enough, suitable with conditionals, and not suitable) based on each variable and matrix classification from main factor (6 variables), supporting factor (5 variables), dan another factors (1 variable). The highest score was 35, and the lowest was 23 during the class interval value. The analysis showed that the aquatic environment that was High Suitable (S1) for sandfish life was Gede Lagoon. It has been determined to be highly suitable for developing sandfish cultivation. Furthermore, the Sea Ranching Harvesting Type development would recommend being carried out in waters that do not have limiting factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); antipsychotic medication; polymorphism, insertion/deletion; treatment response
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:12:20 CEST)
We investigated whether a functional insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) influenced antipsychotic treatment. At baseline, and after 8 weeks of treatment with various antipsychotic medications, we assessed patients’ Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, PANSS factors, and metabolic syndrome-related parameters (fasting plasma lipid and glucose levels, and body mass index). A total of 186 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode psychosis patients or nonadherent chronic psychosis individuals (99 males and 87 females) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The ACE-I/D polymorphism was significantly associated with changes in PANSS psychopathology only (p < 0.05). Compared to ACE-II homozygous males, ACE-DD homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous males manifested significantly greater decreases in PANSS positive score, PANSS excitement factor, and PANSS cognitive factor. ACE-DD homozygous females manifested higher decreases in PANSS depression factor compared to ACE-II homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous females. The polymorphism’s effect size was estimated as moderate to strong, while its contribution to the PANSS psychopathology ranged from ~5.4–8.7%, with the lowest contribution observed for PANSS positive score changes and the highest for PANSS depressive factor changes. Our results indicated that ACE-I/D polymorphism had a statistically significant but weak gender-specific impact on psychopathology data and showed no association between ACE-I/D polymorphism and metabolic syndrome-related parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0425.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: High-dimensional time series; General Dynamic Factor Models; spiked covariance model; reduced-rank process; singular spectrum.
Online: 28 September 2022 (02:02:26 CEST)
For more than half a century, Manfred Deistler has been contributing to the construction of the rigorous theoretical foundations of the statistical analysis of time series and more general stochastic processes. Half a century of unremitting activity is not easily summarized in a few pages. In this short note, we chose to concentrate on a relatively little-known aspect of Manfred's contribution which nevertheless had quite an impact on the development of one of the most powerful tools of contemporary time series and econometrics: dynamic factor models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Candida albicans; Lactobacillus species; biofilm; probiotics
Online: 27 September 2022 (12:34:41 CEST)
Antifungal agents are not always efficient in resolving vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), a common genital infection caused by overgrowth of Candida spp., including Candida albicans, or preventing recurrent infections. Although lactobacilli (which are dominant microorganisms constituting healthy human vaginal microbiota) are important barriers against VVC, the Lactobacillus metabolite concentration needed to suppress VVC is unknown. Therefore, we quantitatively evaluated Lactobacillus metabolite concentrations to determine their effect on Candida spp., including 27 vaginal strains of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, and Limosilactobacillus vaginalis, with inhibitory abilities against biofilms of Candida clinical isolates. Lactobacillus culture supernatants suppressed viable bacteria by approximately 24%-92% relative to preformed Candida biofilms, but their suppression differed between strains, not species. Lactate production was necessary to suppress preformed biofilms and hyphal elongation of C. albicans, whereas hydrogen peroxide was not always essential. Both lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide were required to suppress Candida planktonic cell growth. Lactobacillus strains that significantly inhibited biofilm formation in culture supernatant also inhibited Candida adhesion to epithelial cells in an actual live bacterial adhesion competition test. Healthy human microflora and their metabolites may play important roles in the development of new antifungal agent against VVC caused by C. albicans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: community governance; conflict management; governance; peace; development; SSA
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:41:08 CEST)
This study provides an insightful overview of community-participatory governance and conflict management as instruments for utilizing resources for development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA is a region rich in natural resources but prone to conflict. The study is conceptual and critically engages the application of community governance and conflict management strategies that SSA countries need to adopt. The study praises the notion that community governance is characterized by recognizing and accepting intercultural diversity and creating a democratic institution for promoting good governance and conflict management in SSA. The study recommends that good community governance is required to drive local communities' development, growth, and transformation into a sturdy, innovative, and productive society capitalizing on opportunities. The study voice for the amalgamation of appropriate models and theories of governance cogently in the context of SSA due to the heterogeneity of communities. Therefore, to resolve conflict, conflict management, resolution, and transformation strategies are necessarily needed to accomplish a viable peace to maintain and sustain development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0422.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease; Neurorehabilitation; exergames; Azure Kinect; UPDRS; Movement Analysis; body tracking; telemedicine
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:27:37 CEST)
Motor impairments are among the most relevant, evident, and disabling symptoms of Parkinson’s disease that adversely affect quality of life, resulting in limited autonomy, independence, and safety. Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of physiotherapy and rehabilitation programs specifically targeted to the needs of Parkinsonian patients in supporting drug treatments and improving motor control and coordination. However, due to the expected increase of patients in the coming years, traditional rehabilitation pathways in healthcare facilities could become unsustainable. Consequently, new strategies are needed, in which technologies play a key role in enabling more frequent, comprehensive, and out-of-hospital follow-up. The paper proposes a vision-based solution using the new Azure Kinect DK sensor to implement an integrated approach for remote assessment, monitoring, and rehabilitation of Parkinsonian patients, exploiting non-invasive 3D tracking of body movements to objectively and automatically characterize both standard evaluative motor tasks and virtual exergames. Preliminary results show the system’s ability to quantify specific features of motor performance, easily monitor changes and disease progression over time, and the possibility of using exergames to support motor condition assessment and training. The main innovation relies precisely on the integration of evaluative and rehabilitative aspects, which could be used as a closed loop to design new protocols for remote management of patients tailored to their actual conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0421.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: electrospinning; microfibers; piezoelectric crystals; nitroanilines; fluorescence; functional organic materials
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:22:10 CEST)
N,N-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline (NNDM4NA, C8H10O2N2), is a superelastic and superplastic charge-transfer molecular crystal with a high molecular dipole moment, µ=7.95 D, which crystal-lizes in the acentric polar point group 2. Highly aligned poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) polymer micro-fibers with embedded NNDM4NA nanocrystals were fabricated using the electrospinning tech-nique. The composite fibers display an extraordinarily high piezoelectric output response, where for a small stress of 5.0x103 Nm-2, an effective piezoelectric voltage coefficient of geff=3.6 VmN-1 was obtained. The fibers were found to display solid state blue fluorescence with a long (147 ns) life-time decay. Furthermore, the composite fibers exhibit an average increase of 67% on the Young modulus reaching 55 MPa, while the tensile strength reaches 2.8 MPa when compared with solely PLLA fibers. The results show that nanocrystals, from small organic molecules, with elastic and piezoelectric properties form hybrid functional 2-dimensional luminescent array which are me-chanical strong and generate high output voltages making them promising for applications in energy harvesting and as solid-state blue emitters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Refugee Self-Settlement; Vulnerability; Post-Partition Kolkata; Jabar-Dakhal colony; Global South; Urban Ecology
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:17:21 CEST)
Refugee subject position is an evolving topic of contention in the world today with increased migrant and refugee mobilities. Urban refugee spaces are often segregated in the form of colonies, ethnic villages, even ghettos, embodying institutionalised discourses of apathy and violence. These spaces only occupy the cracks and margins of the normative, formal city, as appropriations of inhospitable natural terrains and urban systems. The paper discusses how refugees compete for resources for survival as “bio-political” subjects and are often held summarily responsible for causing ecological stress in host environments. After the 1947 Partition of the Indian subcontinent, millions of Hindu Bengali refugees from East Pakistan flooded the Eastern Indian states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. Kolkata particularly drew millions for better livelihood prospects. Facing government apathy and local violence, East-Bengali refugees appropriated the urban fringes of Kolkata and claimed their right to urban space through the political act of squatting or Jabar-Dakhal. The intent of this paper is to investigate and map the spatial distribution of East-Bengali refugee squatters and elaborate on how they transformed the terrain and distributed resources through self-management tactics. This spatial history case-study attempts to uncover locational data from archival government records, existing academic literature and fieldwork to visualise where the 145 pre-1950 and the 123 post-1950 Jabar-Dakhal colonies were located in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area. This case of successful refugee self-settlement is qualitatively read in relation to the major areas of ecological stress in Kolkata. One of the UN sustainable development goals is to make cities and human settlements ‘inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable’. This paper hopes to encourage further studies of urban refugee self-settlement and local integration as a viable but complex socio-political-environmental process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0419.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: COVID-19; social determinants of health; older people vulnerability; health welfare regimes
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:16:38 CEST)
As of July 7, 2022, the total number of confirmed cases caused by COVID-19 has reached 544,324 million, and the total number of 6.333 million deaths (WHO). Older people were globally the most vulnerable during the pandemic. This paper examined the mortality and psychological crisis of older people during the pandemic in four cities, namely Wuhan, Milan, London, and Hong Kong. The selection of cities was based on different degrees of social connectedness of older people and chronologically to cover the whole period of the outbreak from January 2020 to August 2022. Older people in Milan and Wuhan tended to rely on the close family relationship during times of crisis. Meanwhile, older people in Hong Kong and London were more dependent on social services. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed to analyze the situations of older people under different government responses and the strengths and weaknesses of respective healthcare systems. Government reports and official statistics were used to illustrate the seriousness of each city's COVID-19 outbreak while stories reported by the press, NGOs, and journal articles were used to reflect the reactions of the older people. Interactions of social culture, health care provisions, and government responses to the pandemic were discussed from the perspective of health welfare regimes. On one hand, results showed that governments have not learned from the experiences of other countries. On the other hand, older people have not successfully coped with the life-threatening stress by breaking institutional boundaries and redefining cultural norms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0418.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: circRNA; skeletal muscle satellite cells; proliferation; differentiation
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:57:42 CEST)
The proliferation and differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) are highly complicated. Apart from the regulatory signaling cascade driven by the protein-coding genes, non-coding RNAs like microRNAs (miRNA) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) play essential roles in this biological process. However, circRNA functions in MuSCs proliferation and differentiation remain largely to be elucidated. Here, we screened for an exonic circTCF4 based on our previous RNA-Seq data, specifically expressed during the development of the longest dorsal muscle in goats. Subsequently, the circular structure and whole sequence of circTCF4 were verified using Sanger sequencing. Besides, circTCF4 was spatiotemporally expressed in multiple tissues from goats but strikingly enriched in muscles. Furthermore, circTCF4 suppressed MuSCs proliferation and differentiation, independent of AGO2 binding. Finally, we conducted Poly(A) RNA-Seq using cells treated with small interfering RNA targeting circTCF4 and found that circTCF4 would affect multiple signaling pathways, including insulin signaling pathway and AMPK signaling pathway related to muscle differentiation. Our results provide additional solid evidence for circRNA regulating skeletal muscle formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Recreational substance abuse; drug abuse; marijuana; amphetamine; acute ischemic stroke; risk factors; young adult; NIS; Stroke; Sudden Cardiac Death
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:41:00 CEST)
Background: Substance use continues to be on the rise in the United States and has been linked to new onset cardiovascular (CVDs) and cerebrovascular disorders (CeVDs) leading to hospitalizations. We aimed to study the association of different subtypes of substance use disorders (SUDs) among hospitalized patients, with the different subtypes of CVDs and CeVDs, using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database. Additionally, we aimed to assess the odds of hospitalizations with new onset CVDs and CeVDs among patients with different types of SUDs. Methods: A retrospective study of the NIS database (2016-2017) using the ICD-10-CM codes was performed. The hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of SUDs were identified. Weighted univariate analysis using the chi-square test and multivariate survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate for the incidence, prevalence, and odds of association between vascular events and SUDs. Results: There were a total of 58,259,589 hospitalizations, out of which 21.42% had SUDs. Out of all the hospitalized patients between the age 18-50, more patients had SUDs than not (31.83%, p< 0.0001). This difference existed for all the different subtypes of SUDs including alcohol related disorder (42.61%), amphetamine dependence (76.17% vs 31.83%), cannabis related disorder (75.17%), cocaine related disorders (57.87%), hallucinogen related disorder (82.91%), inhalant related disorders (67.25%), opioid related disorders (52.86%), and nicotine dependence (35.72%). We found a significant association of acute ischemic stroke with amphetamine dependence (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.14-1.33), cocaine related disorders (1.17, 1.12-1.23) and nicotine dependence (1.42, 1.40-1.43). Similarly, the association of intracerebral hemorrhage was higher with amphetamine dependence (2.58, 2.26-2.93), and cocaine related disorders (1.62, 1.46-1.79). The association of subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted to be higher with amphetamine dependence (1.82, 1.48-2.24) and nicotine dependence (1.47, 1.39-1.55). In terms of association of cardiovascular disorders with SUDs,the patients with myocardial infarction had higher odds of nicotine dependence (1.85, 1.83-1.87) than not, Similarly, the patients with angina pectoris were noted to have a higher association with cocaine related disorders (2.21, 1.86-2.62), and those with atrial fibrillation had a higher association alcohol related disorders (1.14, 1.11-1.17). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the variability of CVD and CeVD in patients hospitalized for SUD. Findings from our study may help promote increased awareness and early management of these events. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific effects of frequency and dose on the incidence and prevalence of CVD and CeVD in patients with SUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0416.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: GEE; Landsat 8 OLI; Multi-linear regression; Remote Sensing; Vegetation indices; Wheat and barley
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:35:20 CEST)
Wheat and barley are among the primary food resources of the world population; therefore, their growth and observation are essential in farms to enhance food security worldwide. On top of that, careful observation of the product is essential to find solutions for the issues faced during their production and to reduce the impacts of weather changes. With the advancement of Remote Sensing technology, the observation and estimation process has increased. In this study, numbers of spectral vegetation indices was used along with canopy biophysical properties ( LAI ) and biochemical properties (chlorophyll), there calculated from (Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2) satellite data. The wheat and barley samples were collected before were be ready for harvest, and a relation with the vegetarian indices was established using the Multi-Linear Regression module, in which the equations used in predicting the harvest were developed and used to create a graph for expected harvest. The result indicated that there is a strong relationship between the vegetation indices of Sentinel-2 and Landsat images and the actual grain yield with R2 of 0.77 and 0.71, respectively. The results show that the strongest correlation is observed between the LAI data obtained from Sentinel data and cereal yield data, with an R2 0.68, and the highest correlation for the indices of Landsat images is observed in the NDWI with R2 0.59 and the lowest degree of error was in the root mean square error (RMSE) for the Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 with 0.57 and 1.54. In addition, this study also showed that the least relationship for grain yield prediction was observed between the NDRI for Sentinel-2 (R2 0.1) and SAVI for Landsat image (R2 0.47).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0415.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Stylometry; Signal Processing; Word Embedding; Deep Neural Networks
Online: 27 September 2022 (07:55:25 CEST)
Classical religious texts remain an essential part of human culture due to their undiminished influence on the advancement of civilization. Although their entirely divine origin is questioned repeatedly, explicit or implicit quoting and adherence to their basic guidelines are fundamental in modern society. In this respect, these documents’ inner structure and linguistic style appear to be pivotal. This paper considers the topic from the standpoint of small textual patterns classified using deep learning methods, traditionally applied to analyze short textual material like tweets. We divide the considered documents into small sequential chunks imitating tweets and categorizing them, classifying an entire text. The proposed method demonstrates that the religious text collections correspond to stable ”Twitter”-like structures that adequately reflect stylistic properties. So, concise word combinations seem to be an inborn textual attribute that adequately outlines the proposed multi-source authorship. This approach differs from traditional methods of analyzing classical religious documents, which are based on the consideration and interpretation of relatively long templates. The case study consists of three famous collections of Mosaic authorship in the Old Testament (Hebrew), Pauline authorship in the New Testament (Greek), and Al-Ghazali authorship (Arabic). The obtained results go well with most previously expressed evaluations and complement them with new implications, particularly in the authorship of two famous manuscripts attributed to Al-Ghazali.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0414.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: lithium sulfur battery; polysulfide; shuttle effect; dendrite; polyaniline; graphite; COMSOL
Online: 27 September 2022 (07:38:09 CEST)
To mitigate lithium dissolution and polysulfide shuttle effect phenomena in high energy lithium sulfur batteries (LISBs), a conductive, flexible, and easily modified polymer composite layer was applied on the anode. The polymer composite layer includes polyaniline and functionalized graphite. The electrochemical behavior of LISBs was studied by galvanostatic charge/discharge tests from 1.7 to 2.8 V up to 90 cycles and via COMSOL Multiphysics simulation software. No apparent overcharge occurred during the charge state, which suggests that the shuttle effect of polysulfides was effectively prevented. The COMSOL Multiphysics simulation provides a venue for optimal prediction of the ideal concentration and properties of the polymer composite layer to be used in the LISBs. The testing and simulation results determined that the polymer composite layer diminished the amount of lithium polysulfide species and decreased the amount of dissolved lithium ions in the LISBs. In addition, the charge/discharge rate of up to 2.0 C with a cycle life of 90 cycles was achieved. The knowledge acquired in this study was important not only for the design of efficient new electrode materials, but also for understanding the effect of the polymer composite layer on the electrochemical cycle stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0413.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Consortium Blockchain; Ring signature; Blockchain privacy; Blockchain security; Access Control; Blockchain big data
Online: 27 September 2022 (07:35:53 CEST)
Banking sectors commit modern working frameworks and models smooth development based on decentralization with keeping money confront in unused ranges and differing activities. Consortium Blockchain Privacy becomes a major concern and the challenge of Most of banking sectors.Development without being hampered being a major concern it can store confirmed, Data privacy includes assuring protection for both insider ad outsider threats therefore access control of Ring signature could help to secure Privacy of inside and outside threats by secure process by RSBAC using CIA triad privacy Confidentiality, Availability, Integrity.This paper proposes a ring signature-based on access control mechanism for determining who a user is and then regulating that person's access to and use of a system's resources. In a nutshell, access control restricts who has access to a system. It also restricts access to system resources to users who have been identified as having the necessary privileges and permissions. The proposed paradigm satisfies the needs of both workflow and non-workflow systems in an enterprise setting. The traits of the conditional purposes, roles, responsibilities, and policies provide the foundation for it. It ensures that internal risks such as database administrators are protected.Finally, it provides the necessary protection in the event that the data is published.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0488.v7
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: solar system; complete relativity; nature; mechanics
Online: 27 September 2022 (05:09:37 CEST)
Origin, mechanics and properties of the Solar System are analysed in the framework of the Complete Relativity theory (by the same author). According to Complete Relativity, everything is relative. Any apparent absolutism (notably invariance to scale of dimensional constants, absolute elementariness, invariance to time) is an illusion stemming from limits imposed by [or on] polarized observers that will inevitably lead to misinterpretation of phenomena (another illusion) occurring on non-directly observable scales or even observable but distant scales in space or time. If everything is relative, reference frames will exist where particles are planets and where planets are living beings. Earth is, therefore, analysed here in more detail, both as a particle and, as a living evolving being (of, hypothesized, extremely introverted intelligence). The analysis confirms the postulates and hypotheses of the theory (ie. existence of discrete vertical energy levels) with a significant degree of confidence. During the analysis, some new hypotheses have emerged. These are discussed and confirmed with various degrees of confidence. To increase confidence or refute some hypotheses, experimental verification is necessary. Main conclusions that stem from my research and are further confirmed in this paper are: universes are, indeed, completely relative; Solar System is a scaled (inflated, in some interpretations) Carbon isotope with a nucleus in a condensed (bosonic) state and components in various vertically excited states; life is common everywhere, albeit extroverted complex forms are present on planetary surfaces only during planetary neurogenesis; anthropogenic climate change is only a part (trigger from one perspective) of bigger global changes; major extinction events on a surface of a planet are relative extinctions, a regular part of transformation and transfer of life in the process of planetary neurogenesis.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0162.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: epidemiological model; dwarf peak phenomenon; herd immunity; Covid-19
Online: 27 September 2022 (04:51:54 CEST)
Compartmental models that dynamically divide the host population in categories such as susceptible, infected and immune constitute the mainstream of epidemiological modelling. Effectively such models treat infection and immunity as binary variables. We constructed an individual based stochastic model that considers immunity as a continuous variable and incorporates factors that bring about small changes in immunity. The small immunity effects (SIE) comprise cross immunity by other infections, small increments in immunity by sub clinical exposures and slow decay in the absence of repeated exposure. The model makes qualitatively different epidemiological predictions including repeated waves without the need for new variants, dwarf peaks (peak and decline of a wave much before reaching herd immunity threshold), symmetry in the upward and downward slopes of a wave, endemic state, new surges after variable and unpredictable gaps, new surge after vaccinating majority of population. In effect the SIE model raises alternative possible causes of the universally observed dwarf and symmetric peaks and repeated surges, observed particularly well during the Covid-19 pandemic. We also suggest testable predictions to differentiate between the alternative causes for repeated waves. The model further shows complex interactions of different interventions that can be synergistic as well as antagonistic. The model suggests that interventions that are beneficial in the short run can also be hazardous in the long run.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Huntington’s disease; circadian rhythm; clock genes; adult neurogenesis; chemogenetics
Online: 27 September 2022 (04:45:35 CEST)
Huntington’s disease (HD) causes progressive movement disorders and cognitive deficits. Besides, sleep disturbances and emotional distress are prominent clinical signatures of HD. The experimental subjects and HD human brains display altered regenerative plasticity resulting from aberrant neurogenic and nonneurogenic areas. Sleep disorders, emotional disruption, and cognitive deficits have been linked to impaired cell cycle events of neural stem cells (NSC) in neurodegenerative disorders. In a physiological state, circadian clock gene pathways play important roles in the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of NSC, whereas the irregular circadian clock pathway is attributed to impairment in the neurogenic process. The recent advancement of chemogenetic-based approaches represents a potential scientific tool to rectify the abnormal circadian clock which may aid in mitigating neurogenic failure in the brain. Notably, GABAergic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the brain plays a key role in the regulation of neuroplasticity and circadian rhythm. Thus, this conceptual review article addresses the potential link between sleep disorder and aberrant neurogenic events in HD and proposes chemogenetic kindling of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) -expressing GABAergic neurons in the brain as a therapeutic strategy for reprogramming the clock gene pathways in mitigating the neurodegenerative failure in HD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0229.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Anti-aging therapy; lipofuscin; SENS; TFEB; intracellular microbe; and synthetic chemotaxis
Online: 27 September 2022 (04:20:31 CEST)
Lipofuscin is indigestible garbage that accumulates in the autophagic vesicles and cytosol of post-mitotic cells with age. Drs. Brunk and Terman postulated that lipofuscin accumulation is the main or at least a major driving factor in aging. They even posited that the evolution of memory is the reason why we get lipofuscin at all, as stable synaptic connections must be maintained over time, meaning that the somas of neurons must also remain in the same locale. In other words, they cannot dilute out their garbage over time through cell division. Mechanistically, their position certainly makes sense given that rendering a large percentage of a post-mitotic cell’s lysosomes useless must almost certainly negatively affect that cell and the surrounding microenvironment. Here, I explore the possibility that the accumulation of lipofuscin to some extent underlies all other categories of age-related damage as defined by Dr. Aubrey de Grey. I do not think that lipofuscin removal will reverse/prevent all forms of aging, just the major component facing us currently. In this piece, I will review what is known about lipofuscin accumulation from evolutionary and mechanistic standpoints and discuss ways of removing it from non-dividing (or slowly-dividing) cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0411.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: small urban green areas; timeseries; GEOBIA; NDVI; MSAVI2; Planet
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:59:34 CEST)
The importance of small urban green areas has increased in the context of rapid urbanization and densification of the urban tissue. The analysis of these areas through remote sensing has been limited due to the low spatial resolution of freely available satellite images. We propose a timeseries analysis on 3 m resolution Planet images, using GEOBIA and vegetation indices, with the aim of extracting and assessing the quality of small urban green areas in two different climatic and biogeographical regions – temperate (Bucharest, Romania) and mediterranean (Athens, Greece). Our results have shown high accuracy (over 91%) regarding the extraction of small urban green areas in both cities, across all analysed images. The timeseries analysis showed consistency in location for around 55% of the identified surfaces throughout the entire period. The vegetation indices registered higher values in the temperate region, due to the vegetation characteristics and the planning of the two cities. For the same reasons, the increase in vegetation density and quality, as a result of the distance from the city centre and the decrease in the density of built-up areas is more obvious in Athens. The proposed method provides valuable insights in the distribution and quality of small urban green areas at city level and can represent the ground basis for many analyses, currently limited by poor spatial resolution.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0410.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: 2D floodplain modeling; HEC-RAS; River Renaturation; finite difference approximation
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:53:09 CEST)
River renaturation can be an effective management method for restoring the floodplain's natural capacity and minimizing the effects during high flow periods. A 1D-2D HEC-RAS model, in which the flood plain was considered as 2D and the main channel as 1D, was used to simulate flooding in the restored reach of the Spree River. When computing in this model, finite volume and finite difference approximations using the Preissmann approach are used for the 1D and 2D models, respectively. To comprehend the sensitivity of the parameters and model, several scenarios were simulated using different time steps and grid sizes. Additionally, dykes, dredging, and changes to the vegetation pattern have been used to simulate flood mitigation measures. The model predicted that flooding would occur mostly in the downstream portion of the channel in the majority of the scenarios without mitigation measures, whereas with mitigation measures, flooding in the floodplain would be greatly reduced. By preserving the natural balance on the channel's floodplain, the restored area needs to be kept in good condition. Therefore, mitigating measures that balance the area's economic and environmental aspects must be considered in light of the potential for floods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0087.v9
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Sieve of Eratosthenes; Goldbach conjecture; Polignac conjecture; Twin Prime conjecture
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:53:01 CEST)
We demonstrate a new quantitative method to the sieve of Eratosthenes, which is an alternative to the sieve of Legendre. In this method, every element of a given set is sifted out once only, and therefore, this method is free of the Mobius function and of the parity barrier. Using this method, we prove that every sufficiently large even number is the sum of two primes, and that every even number is the difference of two primes in infinitely many ways.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: chlorhexidine; bioactive liquid; oral wound healing; pain index score; early wound healing score
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:37:27 CEST)
After surgery, oral cavity healing occurs in a hostile environment and requires proper oral care and hygiene to accelerate recovery. The aim of the current study is to investigate and compare the bioreactivity characteristics of chlorhexidine based (CHX) mouth rinse and a novel bone bioactive liquid (BBL) mouth rinse on oral healing within seven days application post-surgery. A randomized, double blind clinical trial conducted in 81 patients. The mouth rinses were applied twice a day for a period of 7 days. The visual analog scale (VAS) protocol was applied to measure pain index. Early wound healing score (EHI) was determined in evaluate the oral cavity healing progress. No adverse effects were observed using the mouth washes, but CHX resulted in teeth staining. CHX and BBL were sufficient to reduce pain over a period of 7 days. However, the BBL group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in VAS stating day 4. Relative to CHX group, the EHI scores were significantly higher in the BBL group, independent from the tooth location. No gender differences were observed in both VAS and EHI scores. Relative to the commercially available CHX, BBL mouth rinse reduced pain and accelerated oral cavity healing. Suggesting an improvements of oral cavity microenvironment at the wound site that mediates soft tissue regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Public transportation; Automated vehicles; economic viability; business model
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:37:23 CEST)
During the past few years many projects and initiatives were undertaken deploying and testing automated vehicles for public transportation and logistics. However in spite of their ambition, all of these deployments stayed on the level of elaborated experimentation deploying no more than 4 maximum 5 AVs in rather small sites (few Kms of roads) and never really reached the level of large scale “commercial” deployment of transport services. The reasons for this are many, but the most important being the lack of economically viability and commercially realistic models, the lack of scalability of the business and operating models, and the lack of inclusive citizen/user centric services required for the large end-user acceptation and adoption of the solutions. In this paper, based on the experience gained in the H2020 AVENUE project, we present the missing pieces of the puzzle, ad which will be addressed in the Horizon Europe project ULTIMO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0407.v1
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:27:50 CEST)
A number of research projects and a rich literature have dealt with the theme of abandoned medieval villages in Sardinia since the end of the 60s of the last century. Some more or less precise catalogues and reviews of villages in limited territories have been published. Only recently, however, this subject is being addressed in an interdisciplinary manner, combining traditional historical research with the results of archaeological surveys and excavation campaigns, geo-archaeology, toponymy, paleoclimatology. This allows us to have a picture of the landscape and human settlement evolution with its historical changes, conditioned not only by institutional superstructures but also by human and natural traumatic events. Particular attention will be given to the sudden changes that occurred between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. To carry out this survey, it is possible to use some very powerful IT tools which, through the aggregation, organization, correlation and management of information, allow the geo-localization of abandoned villages as proven by the documentary evidence. Thus, on this documentation, existing and acquired in the future, is founded the construction of the related information system. The most easy and suitable tools for this purpose are the CMSs (Content Management Systems) which, in association with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) engines, allow spatial and contextual analysis of the settlements, as they were inserted in their territory. This type of tools aggregates different peculiarities of the object of study, supporting a multidisciplinary reading on the argument. The computerized tools, integrated as a system, offer the possibility to implement it, feeding it and correcting it continuously, basing on new acquisitions. In this study, we will examine a historical areal, for which we have a sufficient number of sources available: Sarrabus, Colostrai and Quirra, adding to the geographical visual information, the temporal visual evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: community pharmacy practice; dispensing quality; antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; Audit Project Odense
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:26:25 CEST)
Background. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control describes the community pharmacist as gatekeeper to the quality of antibiotic use. The pharmacist has the responsibility to guard safe and effective antibiotic use; however, little is known about how this is implemented in practice. Aims. To assess the feasibility of a method to audit the quality of antibiotic dispensing in community pharmacy practice and to explore antibiotic dispensing practices in Greece, Lithuania, Poland, and Spain. Methods. The Audit Project Odense methodology to audit antibiotic dispensing practice was adapted for use in community pharmacy practice. Community pharmacists registered antibiotic dispensing on a specifically developed registration chart and were asked to provide feedback on the registration method. Results. Altogether twenty pharmacists were recruited in four countries. They registered a total of 409 dispenses of oral antibiotics. Generally, pharmacists were positive about the feasibility of implementing the registration chart in practice. The frequency of checking for allergies, contraindications and interactions differed largely between the four countries. Pharmacists provided little advice to patients. The pharmacists rarely contacted prescribers. Conclusion. This tool seems to make it possible to get a useful picture of antibiotic dispensing patterns in community pharmacies. Dispensing practice does not seem to correspond with EU guidelines according to these preliminary results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0405.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: deep frying; olive oil; sesame oil; sesame lignans; Total Polar Compounds
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:11:31 CEST)
Fresh potatoes were deep-fried in olive oil (OO) & extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and their blends with 5%, 10% and 20% v/v sesame oil (SO). This is the first report on the use of sesame oil as natural source of antioxidant for olive oil deep-frying. Oil was evaluated for Peroxide Value (PV), Free Fatty Acids (FFA), K232, K270, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Total Phenols (TP) until Total Polar Compounds (TPCs) reached 25%. Sesame lignan transformations were monitored through Reverse-phase HPLC. While TPCs in olive oils increased at a steady rate, the addition of 5%, 10% and 20% v/v SO created a time window lasting 1, 2 and 3 hours, respectively, where TPCs were constant. SO addition to OO increased the total frying time. Furthermore, the addition of SO reduced the peroxides formation rate for both OO and EVOO. EVOO was more resistant to oxidation than OO as measured by TPCs and TEAC, while frying time raised from 21.5 to 25.25 h when EVOO replaced OO. The increase in frying time for olive oil but not for extra virgin olive oil, after SO addition, is pointing out a niche market for extra virgin olive oil in deep-frying.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Recurrent Neural Network; Renewable Energy; Power consumption; Open Power System Data; Multivariate Exploratory; Time series forecasting
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:44:29 CEST)
The environmental issues we are currently facing require long-term prospective efforts for sustainable growth. Renewable energy sources seem to be one of the most practical and efficient alternatives in this regard. Understanding a nation's pattern of energy use and renewable energy production is crucial for developing strategic plans. No previous study has been performed to explore the dynamics of power consumption with the change in renewable energy production on a country-wide scale. In contrast, a number of deep learning algorithms demonstrated acceptable performance while handling sequential data in the era of data-driven predictions. In this study, we developed a scheme to investigate and predict total power consumption and renewable energy production time series for eleven years of data using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). The dynamics of the interaction between the total annual power consumption and renewable energy production are investigated through extensive Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) and a feature engineering framework. The performance of the model is found satisfactory through the comparison of the predicted data with the observed data, visualization of the distribution of the errors and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) value of 0.084. Higher performance is achieved through the increase in the number of epochs and hyperparameter tuning. The proposed framework can be used and transferred to investigate the trend of renewable energy production and power consumption and predict the future scenarios for different communities. Incorporation of the cloud-based platform into the proposed pipeline may lead to real-time forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Cell Disease; Stroke; Neuroimaging; Hematology; Computational fluid dynamics
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:38:29 CEST)
The main objective of this study is to demonstrate proof of principle that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is a tool for studying the contribution of covert and overt vascular architecture to the risk of cerebrovascular disease in in sickle cell disease (SCD) as well as uncover one or more mechanism of response to therapy such as chronic red blood cell (cRBC) transfusion. We analyzed baseline (screening), pre-randomization and study exit magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) images from 10 (5 each from the transfusion and observation arms) pediatric sickle SCD participants in the silent cerebral infarct transfusion (SIT) trial, using CFD modeling. We reconstructed the intracranial portion of the internal carotid artery and branches and extracted the geometry using 3D Slicer. We cut specific potions of the large intracranial artery to include segments of the internal carotid, middle, anterior, and posterior cerebral artery such that the vessel segment analyzed extended from the intracranial beginning of the internal carotid artery up to immediately after (~0.25 inches) the middle cerebral artery branching point. Cut models were imported into Ansys 2021R2/2022R1 and laminar and time-dependent flow simulation was performed. Change in time averaged mean velocity, wall shear stress, and vessel tortuosity were compared between the observation and cRBC arm. We did not observe a correlation between time averaged mean velocity (TAMV) and mean transcranial doppler (TCD) velocity at study entry. There was also no difference in change in time average mean velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), and vessel tortuosity between the observation and cRBC transfusion arms. WSS and TAMV were abnormal for 2 (developed TIA) out of the 3 participants (one participant had SCI) that developed neurovascular outcomes. CFD approaches allows for the evaluation of vascular topology and hemodynamics in SCD using MRA images. In this proof of principle study, we show that CFD could be a useful tool and we intend to carry out future studies with a larger sample to enable more robust conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0402.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Rechargeable Sensor Network; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; One-to-one Charging; Space-time Collaboration; Optimal Charging Trajectory
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:07:41 CEST)
Aiming at the problem of low charging efficiency caused by the scattered sensor nodes in traditional wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs), a UAV-assisted WRSN Online Charging Strategy Based on Dynamic Queue and Improved K-means (UOCS) is proposed. The scheme assumes that the energy consumption of nodes is unpredictable, and only generates charging requests when the energy is lower than a threshold, and performs on-demand responses to nodes that issue charging requests. The scheme combines the characteristics of one-to-one charging of UAVs, the selection and allocation timing of waiting queues and the number of UAVs, and the improved K-means partitioning based on space-time coordination(SPKM), which simplifies the problem of coordinated charging of multiple UAVs and maximizes energy. Using the efficiency and charging success rate, the optimal charging trajectory can be found under the constraint that the node will not starve to death due to power shortage. Finally, a simulation comparison experiment is carried out with the existing UAV charging scheduling strategy. UOCS achieves the optimal node survival rate with low algorithm complexity.