There are multiple factors involved in speech and language. Investigating animal models, mainly through songbirds, have allowed a better understanding of the language process. Verbal dyspraxia, dysarthria, speech sound disorder, and stuttering are some examples of speech disorders, and specific language disorder, aphasia and, dyslexia of language disorders. More complex syndromes such as Autism-spectrum disorders, Down’s or Fragile X have more variable features. Genetic factors, such as hereditary or de novo mutations may be responsible for their development. In addition, most of them are involved in neurodevelopment with a huge range of molecular mechanisms and pathways that interact with each other, and there may be co-morbidity with other communication disorders or develop phenotypes unrelated to communication. Genes with heterogeneous functions in speech and language such as FOXP1, FOXP2, KIAA0319, ROBO1, APOE or CNTNAP2 are some examples. Epigenetic factors, especially miRNAs, influence their expressiveness. The genomics of these disorders allows us to understand language acquisition, carry out early detection strategies, genetic counseling and optimize future treatments, not only in communication disorders but also those neurological alterations that incorporate these mutations.