ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0469.v1
Online: 29 September 2022 (12:22:21 CEST)
This paper seeks to explore some of the issues to be welcomed but also warned against in general but also specified from an illustrative sample of ‘smart’ projects that caused outcomes that were neither ‘smart’ nor ‘resilient’. These give pointers to a ‘thirdspace’ as a descriptor of the most advanced application of sustainability thinking regarding relational spatial development planning. This contribution examines difficulties in delivering both ‘smart’ and ‘resilient’ responses of interest or value to citizens confronted with recurring crises that derive directly or with implications for sustainability issues. Identified are constraints and issues acting as obstacles to governance, management ‘layering’ and ‘learning’ causing failures of many weak or never-delivered projects. Critiques of static, or worse ‘magical’ thinking are increasingly invoked in consequence. In the analysis of ‘live cases’ all these problems showed up ‘in real life’. The author was pleased that his mentor, the late UCLA planning theorist Ed Soja’s application of the idea of ‘Thirdspace’ received prescient vindication from the results of this adjudication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0468.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: Diamond; NV centre; ultrashort pulse; scattering; scattering spectra; X-ray diffraction analysis
Online: 29 September 2022 (11:04:56 CEST)
Scattering of ultrashort X-ray pulses (USP) is an important component of the diffraction analysis of matter using modern USP sources. Usually, the specific scattering of such USPs is not taken into account to determine the structure of a substance. Taking into account the specifics of scattering on complex structures will give more accurate results when deciphering complex structures. In this work, it is shown that when X-ray USPs are scattered on diamond with NV centers, it is necessary to take into account the pulse duration. The results obtained can be very different from the widely used theory of diffraction analysis, which confirms the need to take into account the specifics of USP scattering when diagnosing complex structures. It is also shown that scattering spectra are quite sensitive to the concentration of NV centres in the diamond structure and this can be used in diffraction analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0442.v2
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: bison; restoration; socio-ecological processes; indigenous harvest; maximum entropy modelling
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:58:10 CEST)
The historic western edge of bison (Bison bison) range and the ecological processes that caused its formation are frequently debated with important implications for bison restoration across North America. We test the hypothesis that a combination of bottom-up habitat suitability and top-down harvest pressure from humans were important processes in forming the western edge of bison distribution. Using 9,384 historical journal observations from 1691 – 1928, we employ MaxEnt ecological niche modelling to identify suitable bison habitat across the Western Cordillera from bottom-up climatic, land cover, and topographic factors. We then use mixed-effect logistic regression to test if bison occurrence in journal records can be in part explained by the abundance of Indigenous humans, wolves, or grizzly bears, in addition to MaxEnt-derived habitat suitability. We find support for our hypothesis because of the limited suitable habitat in the Rocky Mountains that likely prevented westward bison dispersal from core habitat, and there was a negative relationship between bison occurrence and human harvest pressure. On this basis, we propose that intensive human harvest from large populations in the Western Cordillera, subsidized by other wildlife, salmon, and vegetation resources, is an underappreciated socioecological process that needs to be restored alongside bison populations. Co-managing bison with Indigenous people will also mitigate the adverse effects of overabundant bison and maximize the ecological and cultural benefits of bison restoration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0467.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: GPR survey; Roman Villa of Pisões; Water Supply Location; Combined archaeological data; Roman Lusitania.
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:10:42 CEST)
The Roman villa of Pisões (Beja, Portugal), was part of the Lusitanian colony of Pax Iulia. This place stands out for the predominance of the water element in several structures of the villa, highlighting the balneum and the large natatio, one of the largest known in Roman Hispania. The records of the initial excavations that took place since 1967 do not allow the establishment of clear functionalities of the villa. The University of Évora, owner of the site, conceived an action plan for the requalification and enhancement of the archaeological site. One of the tasks aims to investigate using Applied Geophysics. This work analyses the landscape directly related to the villa, given that it is in the flooded area of a river, with a Roman containment dam. It is uncertain whether the water supply comes from this structure or other nearby springs. The use of ground-penetrating radar, combined with unnamed aerial vehicles, all integrated in a geographic information system, allows us to know the location of underground water connections and create a topographic model with high resolution. Considering all the information, we propose a model for the water transport inside the villa and estimate the location of the water supply.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Schrödinger's equation; Immanuel Kant; Noumena; Metaphysics; Quantum physics
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:07:32 CEST)
Modern physics is situated on the fine line between scientific research and an attempt to answer metaphysical questions. Contemporary scholars such as Henry Stapp and Roger Penrose attempt to create an ontological interpretation of Schrödinger's equation in superposition state and its reduction or collapse to classical state. In this short essay I will try to explore how Immanuel Kant's metaphysics and the concept of noumena can be possibly integrated with quantum physics and Schrödinger's equation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0465.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Spatial; Decision Support; Machine Learning; Automation; Framework; System; SDSS; AutoML; GIS
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:06:18 CEST)
Many spatial decision support systems suffer from user adoption issues in practice due to lack of trust, technical expertise, and resources. Automated machine learning has recently allowed non-experts to explore and apply machine learning models in the industry without requiring abundant expert knowledge and resources. This paper reviews recent literature from 136 papers, and proposes a general framework for integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning to lower major user adoption barriers. Challenges of data quality, model interpretability, and practical usefulness were discussed as general considerations for system implementation. Research opportunities related to spatially explicit models in AutoML, and resource-aware, collaborative/connected, and human-centered systems were also discussed to address these challenges. This paper argues that integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning can not only encourage user adoption, but also mutually benefit research in both fields — bridging human-related and technical advancements for fostering future developments in spatial decision support systems and automated machine learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0301.v9
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Cosmology; Black holes; Dark Energy; Schwarzschild metric
Online: 19 July 2022 (10:32:16 CEST)
This paper proposes a relativistic model of the Universe in which the geometry describes a 4D version of the 2-sheeted hyperboloid that is isotropic, homogeneous in space at a given time and inhomogeneous in time. The radius of this metric is temporal as opposed to spatial. It predicts both a Universe and Anti-Universe moving in opposite directions of time undergoing an expansion phase, followed by a collapsing phase. Using only the current age of the Universe and transition redshift, it predicts the accelerated expansion and it is shown that its Hubble diagram fits currently available supernova and quasar data as well as predicting a Hubble constant $H_0\approx71.6km/s/Mpc$. The angular term of the metric describes time dilation caused by the relativistic kinematic precession effect known as Thomas Precession which can be interpreted as spin about the time dimension. The model also makes two novel predictions: that the early Universe should have structures older than expected due to an increased amount of proper time relative to coordinate time in that era and that the background Universe should appear brighter than current models predict.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0464.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: wheat aleurone; dietary fibre; extraction process; antioxidant; bread; arabinoxylans
Online: 29 September 2022 (09:00:46 CEST)
The wheat aleurone layer is, according to millers, the main bran fraction. It is a source of nutritionally valuable compounds, such as dietary fibres, proteins, minerals and vitamins, that may exhibit health benefits. Despite these advantages, the aleurone layer is scarce on the market, probably due to issues related to its extraction. Many processes exist with some patents, but a choice must be made between the quality and quantity of the resulting product. Nonetheless, its potential has been studied mainly in bread and pasta. While the nutritional benefits of aleurone-rich flour addition to bread agree, opposite results have been obtained concerning its effects on end-product characteristics (namely loaf volume and sensory characteristics), thus ensuing different acceptability responses from consumers. However, the observed negative effects of aleurone-rich flour on bread dough could be reduced by subjecting it to pre- or post-extracting treatments meant to either reduce the particle size of the aleurone’s fibres or to change the conformation of its components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0463.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quantum superposition; EPR paradox; nonlocality; Bell's Theorem; contextuality
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:53:24 CEST)
Euclidean theorems are indisputable in flat spaces, but do not hold in curved spaces. Likewise, Bell’s Theorem is true for jointly distributed variables in Kolmogorov probability spaces. Yet, quantum spin variables are not jointly distributed and cannot coexist in Kolmogorov spaces. They have different qualities and operate by different rules. Therefore, Bell’s Theorem does not entail that quantum theory is non-local. The question remains: what is the origin of quantum contextuality? Other theories (not quantum theory) need nonlocality or super-determinism to make similar predictions, because they cannot violate Bell-type inequalities, but why is quantum theory different? The answer is found in the analysis of quantum superposition, in the context of a much older debate about the ontology of linear wave superposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0462.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Compressive strength; metakaolin; nanomaterial; refractory; zirconia
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:51:22 CEST)
Geopolymer is an emerging material alternative to Portland cement and has potential as a refractory material. Adding filler in geopolymer material is a strategy to increase the advantages of its physical and mechanical properties. It has been previously reported that adding nanoparticles can increase the compressive strength value, but there is no reported interaction between nanoparticles and geopolymer during the geopolymerization process. This study aims to study the effect of adding nano-zirconia fillers on the physical and mechanical changes of metakaolin-based geopolymers with nano-zirconia fillers. The geopolymer paste was prepared with 100 g of metakaolin as the base material and added with variations of nano-zirconia 2gr, 5gr, 10 gr, and 15 gr. Further characterization was carried out by XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX, and DTA-TG. This study showed that the compressive strength of the MZr05 sample increased significantly by 58.7% compared to the control sample. The test results of the structure and functional groups did not lead to any new compounds formed in the geopolymerization reaction. Therefore, the interaction of metakaolin geopolymer with nano-zirconia only creates an interfacial bonding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0461.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Persuasive Technology; Malaria Prevention and Control Support System (MPCSS); active inter-vention tool; Mosquitoes; Malaria Related Deaths (MRDs)
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:49:42 CEST)
Malaria is one of the leading causes of illnesses and deaths in Africa at large and Nigeria in particular, especially amongst pregnant women and children under the age of five years. Our research revealed that though the government has deployed so many intervention systems to contend with this death-causing vector—the mosquitoes, malaria related deaths (MRDs) have continued to increase. This is because people have not sufficiently adopted those intervention systems to protect themselves. Further enquiries into the ineffective compliance of the people to the intervention systems revealed that the interventions are passive in nature. Based on these, we set up three measurable research outcomes to enable us to determine the appropriateness of persuasive technology in solving the malaria problem. We technically avoided a one-size-fits-all design approach and adopted Participatory System Design (PSD) and User-Centered Design (UCD) approaches in our system design methodologies. Well-structured questionnaires were used to extract information from the participants. The data obtained from the research survey was used in modeling the intervention system. The research was conducted in three phases: baseline, development and deployment of an intervention system—the Malaria Prevention and Control Support System (MPCSS), and an evaluation study to determine the performance of the intervention system. The research led to the following achievements: (1) encouraged an increase in the number of people who participated in malaria prevention and control activities by lowering the rate of malaria cases from 96.9% to 68.5% and increasing ownership of mosquito nets from 54% to 85.5%; (2) demonstrated that persuasive technology could be used to increase public awareness and knowledge of a given subject as noted in our evaluation result; and (3) demonstrated that persuasive technology is a veritable active intervention to combat malaria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Machine Learning; Convolutional Neural Networks; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Optical flow method; Blood velocity; Agiography
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:45:13 CEST)
Detailed flow distributions in vascular systems are the key to identifying hemodynamic risk factors for the development and progression of vascular diseases. Although computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been widely used in bioengineering research on hemodynamics predictions, not only are high-fidelity CFD simulations time-consuming and computing-expensive, but also not friendly to clinical applications due to the difficulty of comprehensive numerical calculations. Machine learning (ML) algorithums to estimate the flow field in vascular systems based on the angiographic images of the blood flow using existed diagnostic tools are emerging as a new pathway to facilitate the mapping of hemodynamics. In present work, the dye injection in a water flow was simulated as an analogy of the contrast perfusion in blood flow using CFD. In the simulation, the light passes through the flow field and generates projective images, as an analogy of X-ray imaging. The simulations provide both the ground truth velocity field and the projective images of the flow with dye patterns. A rough velocity field was estimated using the optical flow method (OFM) based on projective images. ML algorithums are then trained using the ground truth CFD data and the OFM velocity estimation as the input. Finally, the interpretable (logistic regression) and deep (neural networks, convolutional neural networks, long short term memory) machine learning models are validated by using parallel in vitro experiments on the same flow setup. The validation results showed that the employed ML model significantly reduced the error rate from 53.5% to 2.5% in average for the v-velocity estimation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0459.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: magnesium; aluminum; additive manufacturing; complex structure; mechanical characteristics; tribological performance
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:28:16 CEST)
Magnesium and Aluminum alloys continue to be important in the context of modern and lightweight technologies. With the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM), components can be produced directly in a net shape, widen up the usage of magnesium and aluminum alloys as well as holding new ideas for the application of unique physical structures made feasible by 3D printing. Laser-based approach, one of the metal additive manufacturing (AM) methods, enables the formation of arbitrary 3D structures. With promising findings, research in this area is advancing quickly, bringing up a variety of potential applications in both the scientific and industrial sectors. Complex structures can now be manufactured easily utilizing AM technologies to meet the pre-requisite objectives like reduced part numbers, greater functionality, and lightweight, among others. AM has the ability to meet demands by lowering costs and speeding up the manufacturing process. Due to their popularity in numerous high-value applications, aluminum, and magnesium alloys are one of the key material systems being researched in the laser-based additive manufacturing approaches. The review here aims to comprehensively examine the additive manufacturing of magnesium and aluminum alloys, highlighting the influence of the laser-based additive manufacturing approach on the mechanical characteristics, microstructure, and tribological performance of magnesium and aluminum alloys.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0458.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: kynurenine pathway; inflammatory biomarkers; inflammation; ADHD; neurobiology; kynurenine
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:11:33 CEST)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that can diminish the quality of life of both children and adults in academic, occupational, and social contexts. The kynurenine pathway (KP) contains a set of enzymatic reactions involved in tryptophan (TRP) degradation. It is known to be associated with the risk of developing ADHD. This review will address the KP and underlying mechanism of inflammation in ADHD. Potential inflammatory biomarkers reported in the most recent studies are summarized. Although a strong neuroimmunological basis has been established due to advances of recent neurobiological research, the pathophysiology of ADHD remains unclear.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0457.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Anti-angiogenic; HIF-1 α; Normalization-window; research; hypoxia; resistance; SBRT; Immunotherapy
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:06:17 CEST)
Multiple biological pathways manifest and latent, meant for human survival, become a liability in cancer cure. With an increasing understanding of innumerable complex paths, cancer progression and development of resistance is no surprise. For the three “vasculature-immune-phenotypic” fundamental changes, hypoxia is the maestro orchestrating the whole gamut of changes (through the master manipulator - HIF-1 α), simultaneously transactivating hundreds of pro-angiogenic genes. Such a complex molecular bio-network begs the question, “Is our cancer research caught in such a tangled web that we have lost sight of the Spider?”. Hypoxia is this Spider weaving compensatory webs with every intervention/ obstruction. Anti-angiogenic (AAG) research has been conducted mainly in silos – exploring independent paths. This review conceptualizes a convergence of a multitude of research worldwide to a single theme of normalizing vasculature as a primary baseline for overcoming resistance to AAGs or their combinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Marnaviridae; algal bloom; algal viruses; icosahedral viruses; ssRNA viruses
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:53:23 CEST)
Marnaviridae viruses are abundant algal viruses that regulate the dynamics of algal blooms in aquatic environments. They employ a narrow host range because they merely lyse their own algal host species. This host-specific lysis is thought to correspond to the unique transmission mechanism of the Marnaviridae viruses. Here, we present the atomic structures of the full and empty capsids of Chaetoceros socialis forma radians RNA virus 1 built in 3.0 Å and 3.1 Å cryo-electron microscopy maps. The empty capsid structure and the structural variability provide insights on its assembly and uncoating intermediates. In conjunction with the previously reported atomic model of the Chaetoceros tenuissimus RNA virus type II capsid, we have identified the common and diverse structural features of the VP1 surface between the Marnaviridae viruses. We have also tested the potential usage of AlphaFold2 for structural prediction of the VP1s and a subsequent structural phylogeny for classifying Marnaviridae viruses by their hosts. These findings will be crucial for inferring the host-specific transmission mechanism in Marnaviridae viruses, which is decisive for monitoring and possibly regulating the occurrence and disappearance of algae blooms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0455.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: systems biology; machine learning; surrogate model
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:17:28 CEST)
Mechanistic models have been used for centuries to describe complex interconnected processes, including biological ones. As the scope of these models has widened, so have their computational demands. This complexity can limit their suitability when running many simulations or when real-time results are required. Surrogate machine learning models can be used to approximate the behaviour of complex mechanistic models, and once built, their computational demands are several orders of magnitude lower. This paper provides an overview of the relevant literature, both from an applicability and a theoretical perspective. For the latter, the paper focuses on the design and training of the underlying machine learning models. Application-wise, we show how machine learning surrogates have been used to approximate different mechanistic models. We present a perspective on how these approaches can be applied to models representing biological processes with potential industrial applications (e.g., metabolism and whole-cell modelling) and show why surrogate machine learning models may hold the key to making the simulation of complex biological models possible using a typical desktop computer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0454.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: CRISPR-Cas technology; pest management; plant stress resistance; insect resistance
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:08:41 CEST)
Global crop yield and food security are being threatened by phytophagous insects. Innovative methods are required to increase agricultural output while reducing reliance on hazardous synthetic insecticides. It appears to be quite effective at reducing production costs and boosting farm profitability to use the ground-breaking CRISPR-Cas technology to create plants that are insect resistant. In contrast, this new technique can modify an insect's genome to either produce gene drive or get beyond an insect's tolerance to various insecticides. This paper reviews and critically discusses the use of CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology in long-term insect pest management. The emphasis of this review is on the prospective uses of the CRISPR-Cas system for insect stress management in crop production by creating genome-edited crops and insects. The potential and difficulties of using CRISPR-Cas technology to reduce pest stress in crop plants are critically examined and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0453.v1
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:05:29 CEST)
Introduction: Cancer is a group of diseases caused by uncontrolled and abnormal cell growth caused by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. Based on data from Dr Kariadi Hospital in 2021, lung cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer were 1,259 cases, this incident increased significantly from 2020. Based on the data obtained, the sequence of lung cancer cases was 241, breast cancer 623 , and cervical cancer 395. Both cancer and its treatment can weaken the patient's immune system, this is what makes cancer sufferers have a risk of anxiety and depression. Objective: To find out the description of anxiety and depression in cancer patients at RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang. Methods: The design of this study was descriptive quantitative, with a population of 56 patients and calculated using a stratified random sampling formula so that a sample of 49 respondents was obtained. The instrument or measuring instrument in this study used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Most cancer patients experienced mild anxiety and did not experience depression or at normal levels, from the number of respondents as many as 49 respondents, 27 respondents experienced mild anxiety (55.1%) and did not experience depression or at normal levels as many as 22 respondents (44, 9%). Suggestion: It is hoped that it can provide input for nurses to provide counseling to patients as an effort to reduce the anxiety and depression felt by patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Flooding from Groundwater; FEFLOW; Groundwater Modelling; Rise in River stage, Super Mesh
Online: 29 September 2022 (05:53:43 CEST)
Groundwater (GW) flooding mechanisms differ from river flooding both spatially and temporally, and preventative methods against groundwater flooding must take this into account. Although groundwater flooding caused by river water rise occurs seldom, it can occasionally become severe and last for a long time if the river is significantly flooded. In the southwest portion of the research domain, Friedrichshafen with a few urban communities, the level of the groundwater table was discovered to be roughly 1 m below the surface. It was discovered that the urban settlement area only has one-story buildings. In the study region, it is typical for the single-story building's foundation bottom level to extend up to a depth of about 1.5 meters. Therefore, flood mitigation methods are taken into account for the southwest portion of the study region. The installation of a pumping well, drainage, and a barrier in the affected area are three different flood control strategies that are taken into consideration for the study area. From a technical and cost-benefit perspective, installing a pumping well that withdraws water and lowers the groundwater table was found to be the most effective flood control measure locally in a small region (e.g., 1km x 1km). By contrast, removing groundwater by building drainage and barriers was also shown to be ineffective to lower the groundwater table over an extended region and was significantly more expensive than the installation of wells. Additionally, when river flooding is taken into account compared to the default scenario where no intake of water from the river is included along the western border of the study area, it is discovered that the spread of pollution is significantly greater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: HIV; tobacco; electronic cigarettes; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:54:56 CEST)
People with HIV (PWH) experience higher rates of cardiovascular events (CVEs) compared with the general population. A substantial body of evidence supports that select biomarkers of inflammation (soluble CD14 [sCD14], soluble CD163 [sCD163], highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and coagulation (D-dimer) are elevated in PWH and related to increased rates of CVEs. Our previous work showed that smoking compared with nonsmoking was associated with significantly elevated sCD14, a biomarker of monocyte activation. We aimed to explore the effect of electronic cigarette (EC) provision on inflammatory biomarkers in PWH who smoked daily and then switched to an EC. Nineteen PWH were enrolled in a pilot study in which an EC and e-liquid were provided weekly or 8 weeks. Blood specimens for inflammatory biomarker analysis were obtained at baseline (BL) and at week 8. Biomarker levels were high at BL and did not differ significantly at week 8. There were small nonsignificant reductions in sCD163 and CRP levels. Non-significant increases in IL-6, D-dimer and sCD14 levels were also noted. Use of ECs for 8 weeks does not appear to significantly increase or decrease inflammatory biomarker levels in SWH. Further research with larger samples and a control group is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0450.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Heslington brain; intrinsically disordered protein; intrinsically disordered region; binding-induced folding; disorder-to-order transition
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:49:27 CEST)
Proteomic analysis revealed the preservation of many proteins in the “Heslington brain” (which is at least 2,600-year-old brain tissue uncovered within the skull excavated in 2008 from a pit in Heslington, Yorkshire, England). Five of these proteins (“main proteins”), heavy, medium, and light neurofilament proteins (NFH, NFM, and NFL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and myelin basic (MBP) protein are engaged in the formation non-amyloid protein aggregates, such as intermediate filaments and myelin sheath. We used a wide spectrum of bioinformatics tools to evaluate the prevalence of functional disorder in several related sets of proteins, such as “main proteins” and their 44 interactors, as well as all other protein identified in the Heslington brain. These analyses revealed that all five “main proteins”, half of their interactors and almost one third of the Heslington brain proteins are expected to be mostly disordered. Furthermore, most of the remaining proteins are expected to contain sizable disordered regions. This is in contrary the expected substantial (if not complete) elimination of the disordered proteins from the Heslington brain. Therefore, it seems that the intrinsic disorder of NFH, NFM, NFL, GFAP, and MBP, their interactors and many other proteins might play a crucial role in preserving the Heslington brain by forming tightly folded brain protein aggregates, in which different parts are glued together via the disorder-to-order transitions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0449.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: pulsed power plasma discharge; electromagnetic; COMSOL; numerical simulation
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:32:36 CEST)
The scope of this work was part of our previous research on Pulsed Power Plasma Stimulation Technique. Electromagnetic fields generated during a pulsed power plasma discharge were simulated using a finite element method in the COMSOL RF module. The field distributions were calculated during and after the pulse. The current paper takes advantage of prior work measuring and modeling the current distribution in the plasma arc. Agreement with laboratory experimental measurements provides support for extension of the model to reservoir scale. The validated model was used to quantify the signal attenuation level in different medium environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0448.v1
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:27:46 CEST)
Deposition/printing of materials with sub-1 μm precision and size (cross sections) is required for optical and electrical micro-devices. Crystalline c-ITO (Indium tin oxide) nanostructures were patterned on glass with a precision that formed gaps of 20-50 nm between individual disks or lines of ∼ 250 nm diameter or width. The absorbed energy density [J/cm3] followed the second order dependence on pulse energy. This facilitated high resolution and precision for nanoscale laser writing at the 515 nm laser wavelength. Patterns for optical elements such as circular gratings and micro-disks were laser printed using ITO as a resist. Unexposed amorphous a-ITO was chemically removed in aqueous 1% vol. HF solution. This use of a-ITO as solid-resist is promising for metamaterial and micro-optical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0030.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: base-isolated building, irregularity, angle of seismic incidence, pulse-like ground motion, energy input
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:20:20 CEST)
In general, isolators and dampers used in seismically isolated buildings are designed to be isotropic in any horizontal direction. However, in the case of buildings with plan irregularities, their nonlinear responses depend on the direction of seismic loading. To discuss the influence of the angle of seismic incidence (ASI) on the nonlinear response of irregular building structures, it is important to define the angle of the critical axis of the horizontal ground motion. One possible choice is the “principal axis of ground motion” proposed by Arias (1970). However, because this principal axis is independent of the natural period of a structure, it could be complicated to use for seismically isolated structures with long natural periods. In this study, the influence of the ASI of long-period pulse-like seismic input on an irregular base-isolated building is investigated. First, the angle of the principal axis of ground motion is defined in terms of the cumulative energy input. Then, a nonlinear time-history analysis of a five-story irregular base-isolated building is performed using 10 long-period pulse-like ground motion records considering various ASIs. The results show that, compared with the principal axis of ground motion proposed by Arias, defining the principal axis of ground motion in terms of the cumulative energy input is more suitable for discussions concerning the influence of the ASI on the response of an irregular base-isolated building.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0309.v9
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: obesity; body weight regulation; macronutrients; energy balance theory; mass balance model; paradigm shift; living review
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:18:08 CEST)
According to known laws of physics, chronic positive mass balance is the actual etiology of obesity, not positive energy balance. The relevant physical law in terms of body mass regulation is the Law of Conservation of Mass, not the Law of Conservation of Energy. A recently proposed mass balance model (MBM) describes the temporal evolution of body weight and body composition under a wide variety of feeding experiments, and it seems to provide a highly accurate description of the very best experimental human feeding data. By shifting to a mass balance paradigm of obesity, a deeper understanding of this disease may follow in the near future. The purpose of this living review is to present the core issues of the upcoming paradigm shift as well as some practical applications related to the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0438.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Dilation; Indefinite inner product space; Module
Online: 29 September 2022 (02:48:49 CEST)
Dilation of contractions on Hilbert space and Banach space is classical. Recently, dilations theory has been put in the setting of sets, vector spaces, p-adic Hilbert spaces and modules. In this paper, we derive important dilation results for self-adjoint morphisms on indeﬁnite inner product modules over *-rings of characteristic 2. More precisely, we prove indeﬁnite inner product versions of Halmos dilation, Egervary N-dilation and Sz.-Nagy dilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0059.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: Higgs mass; Group Theory; Hypothetical Particles
Online: 28 September 2022 (15:52:07 CEST)
Starting from the SU(2) group of weak interactions in the presence of Electric Charge Swap (ECS) symmetry, we show that ordinary and non-regular (ECS) leptons are related by the ECS rotational group SO(3). We find that many Standard Model (SM) algebras depend on the sin of the angle θs of the ECS rotational group SO (3). We call these ECSM algebras. Furthermore, the break of the gauge symmetry of the SM groupoid gives the massive ECS particle. We find that the ECS particle masses are related with the SM particle masses by sinθs . We also investigate the finite subgroups of the ECS Möbius transformations. We find that sinθs could be derived from the ECS dihedral group DF, which refers to the symmetry of the fermionic polygon (F-gon). The average value of the anchor of the SM algebroid depends on the fermionic Catalan numbers (CF). Finally, we find that the ECS physics at loop level differs the SM physics. The ECSM mass is suppressed by the CF numbers. For 24 fermions, the calculated one-loop radiative correction to the bare Higgs mass µ is 125GeV—a value very close to the experimental one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0447.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: change-point analysis; weak spots; spectral analysis; ambient noise RMS; georadar attribute
Online: 28 September 2022 (15:49:50 CEST)
The seasonal soil losses and frequent shallow landslides in the Cerrado region of Brazil have high destructive potential with social, economic, and climatic implications. As fluvial systems substantially drive such environmental threats; therefore, it is essential to conduct geological site characterization and continuously monitor the seasonal erosive potentials of the rivers and streams. However, in such unstable and sensitive conditions, traditional intrusive investigation approaches may not be safe; therefore, the geophysical investigation might offer a good alternative. For the present study, a geophysical approach (particularly the seismic method) was adopted to examine the seismic footprints and GPR site characterization of a seasonal stream in the Rua do Matto, Brasilia, Brazil. The monitoring was conducted (at a safe distance) on the intermittent stream over several durations of dry (no rain) and rainy (flood) conditions. After pre-processing the raw data, the power spectral density (PSDs) was computed as a function of several variables (wind speed), time-frequency spectrograms, ambient noise displacement root mean square (RMS), the single station horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) curves. In addition, change-point analysis was used for comparing the ambient noise with wind speed (both were well correlated). The GPR amplitude and waveform variation features were attributed to the subsurface material and the presence of boulders in the floodplain as well as regions (low coherence value) susceptible to erosion (weak spots). The river flows were evident on the mean probabilistic PSD values, spectrograms, HVSR curves and different patterns of RMS displacements (at selective ranges of frequency). The multi-peaks emerged on the HVSR curve are further analyzed for changes in amplitude, width and troughs possibly related to river activities and soil moisture due to rain. The approach provides the basis for non-destructive monitoring tools enabling the detection of 'seismic signatures' and weak spots of the fluvial channels for improving their environmental management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0446.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: petroleum; oil market; oil; statistics
Online: 28 September 2022 (15:35:31 CEST)
The energy matrix worldwide has been going through difficulties in its discussions - such as irregular exploration, inefficient public policies, and arbitrariness concerning diplomatic and political definitions of those involved in this market. This work's general objective consists in analyzing associations and statistical inferences of the largest world oil producers, assimilating the contributions and singularities of this market from 1993 to 2020. Based on the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), it was possible to identify the possible inferences and contributions of the ten largest oil producers in the world in more than two decades using statistical analysis through correlation, regression, and statistical analysis of variables. According to the research and the literature on the area, the oil market proposes support to its discussions, mainly in its productive approaches. It is possible to identify this market as a solid link to geopolitical actions, distributing the possibilities through economic bias and socio-cultural and historical factors on a global level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0445.v1
Online: 28 September 2022 (15:30:38 CEST)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that, occasionally, may spread to the central nervous system (CNS), being the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis. One of the main neurovirulence factors of HSV-1 is the protein ICP34.5 that, although initially seemed to be relevant only in neuronal infections, it can also promote viral replication in non-neuronal cells. New ICP34.5 functions have been discovered during the recent years, and some of them have been questioned. This review describes the mechanisms of ICP34.5 to control cellular antiviral responses and debates its most controversial functions. One of the most discussed roles of ICP34.5 is autophagy inhibition. Although autophagy is considered a defense mechanism against viral infections, current evidence suggests that this antiviral function is only one side of the coin. Different types of autophagic pathways interact with HSV-1 impairing or enhancing the infection, and both the virus and the host cell modulate these pathways to tip the scales in its favor. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the interplay between autophagy and HSV-1, focusing on the intricate role of ICP34.5 in the modulation of this pathway to gain the battle against cellular defenses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0444.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: parity-time symmetry; reciprocity; Green’s matrix; metamaterials
Online: 28 September 2022 (13:27:56 CEST)
Inspired by recent developments in wave propagation and scattering experiments with parity-time (PT) symmetric materials, we discuss reciprocity and representation theorems for 3D inhomogeneous PT-symmetric materials and indicate some applications. We start with a unified matrix-vector wave equation which accounts for acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic, elastodynamic, poroelastodynamic, piezoelectric and seismoelectric waves. Based on the symmetry properties of the operator matrix in this equation, we derive unified reciprocity theorems for wave fields in 3D arbitrary inhomogeneous media and 3D inhomogeneous media with PT-symmetry. These theorems form the basis for deriving unified wave field representations and relations between reflection and transmission responses in such media. Among the potential applications are interferometric Green’s matrix retrieval and Marchenko-type Green’s matrix retrieval in PT-symmetric materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0443.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Eye Tracking; Magnetic tracker; Magnetic Sensor; Sensor Array; eye motion; Donders' Law; Listing's law
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:30:28 CEST)
An innovative wearable eye tracker based on a permanent-magnet marked corneal lens is analyzed in terms of the information that can be retrieved from the tracking parameters. We demonstrate that, despite missing information due to the axial symmetry of the measured field, physiological constraints or measurement conditions make possible to infer complete eye-pose data. The results show that the instrumentation considered is suitable as a new low-invasive medical diagnostics for the characterization of ocular movement and associated disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0442.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: TDP-43; Liquid-liquid phase separation; Solution-state NMR
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:22:40 CEST)
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of proteins has been found ubiquitously in eukaryotic cells, critical in the controlling of many biological processes through forming a temporary condensed phase with different bimolecular components. TDP-43 is recruited to stress granules in cells and is the main component of TDP-43 granules and proteinaceous amyloid inclusions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 low complexity domain (LCD) is able to demix in solution forming the protein condensed droplets. The molecular interactions regulating its LLPS were investigated at the protein fusion equilibrium stage, where the droplets stopped growing. We found the molecules in the droplet were still liquid-like but with enhanced intermolecular helix-helix interaction in the LCD. The protein would start to aggregate after about 200 minutes of lag time and aggregate slower than at the condition when the protein does not phase separate or the molecules have a reduced intermolecular helical interaction. A structural transition intermediate towards protein aggregation was also discovered involving a decrease of the intermolecular helix-helix interaction and a reduction in the helicity. Therefore, LLPS and the intermolecular helical interaction could help maintain the stability of TDP-43 LCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: biliary atresia; complications; clavien-dindo classification; comprehensive complication index; cci
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:19:37 CEST)
Introduction Kasai procedure in children with biliary atresia (BA) is associated with several complications in the short-term. The Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) is a validated metric in adult surgery for the analysis of complication and morbidity in surgical patients. We aimed to analyze the CCI for the first time in BA infants and to corelate its association with the outcome. Material and Methods Retrospective review of medical records of infants with type III BA undergoing Kasai procedure between January 2011 and December 2021 at our institution. All unexpected events were ranked according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and the CCI per patient was subsequently calculated. Clavien-Dindo grades, individual events, the CCI and the total event number per patient were correlated with the one- and two-year outcome post Kasai. Results 131 events were identified in 101 patients (range 0 – 11 per patient). Forty-four Grade I (33.6%), 67 Grade II (51.1%), 18 Grade III (13.7%) and two sentinel events [> Grade IV] (1.5%) were documented according to Clavien-Dindo, including one death in a cardiac-associated BA patient. None of the complications correlated significantly with a poor outcome. Sixty-three (62.4%) CCI were calculated (range 0 – 100). The mean CCI during the in-patient treatment post Kasai, was significantly higher in patients with a poorer outcome compared to patients with native liver survival at one- and two-year follow-up (22.7 21.7 vs 13.2 18.1; p=0.02). Conclusion Not the severity of complications, but the accumulation of numerous events related to Kasai procedure are associated with a poorer outcome. Therefore, the CCI is an excellent instrument for the postoperative morbidity assessment of BA patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: infectious diseases; chikungunya; antiviral; flavonoids; fisetin; toll-like receptors
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:15:36 CEST)
In the chronic phase of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, excessive inflammation manifests as incapacitating joint pain and prolonged arthritis. Arthritis resulted from a large influx of infiltrating immune cells driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines originating from the toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate antiviral response. This study investigated fisetin's ability to modulate TLR-mediated antiviral responses against CHIKV in Huh7 cells. The CHIKV inhibitory potential of fisetin was assessed by plaque-forming unit assay, virus yield reduction assay, and bright-field microscopy (cytopathic effect, immunofluorescence). Fisetin’s modulatory potential on TLR-mediated antiviral response was evaluated by immunofluorescence assay (expression of TLR proteins), qRT-PCR (mRNA level of antiviral genes), human cytokine array, and immunoblotting of key transcription factors. The present study showed fisetin induced the expression of the antiviral genes at an early time-point by promoting the phosphorylation of IRF3 and IRF7. Fisetin reduced excessive inflammatory cytokine responses in CHIKV-infected Huh7 cells by impeding the over-phosphorylation of NF-κB. Fisetin also reduced CHIKV-induced cytopathic effects in CHIKV-infected Huh7 cells. Altogether, our study suggests that fisetin modulates TLR-mediated antiviral responses by affecting the CHIKV-induced inflammatory responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: COVID19; SARS-CoV-2 virus; Oro-nasopharyngeal; fecal; vaccination; asym-symptomatic; rapid diagnostic test
Online: 28 September 2022 (11:51:21 CEST)
Coronavirus is a disease caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which emerged as a global pandemic in 2019 from Wuhan, China. Since its emergence, it has caused immense suffering to human life, 6.27 million lives have been lost, movement curtailed and social dynamics disrupted. The golden standard for getting samples for SARS-CoV-2 detection is through oral- nasopharyngeal swab, this method of sample collection is invasive and uncomfortable, thus stigmatized the general population, and thereby impeded the progress of controlling the spread through mass testing. Being a contact disease, mechanisms to encourage mass testing is key to reduce the spread. This study thus developed a complimentary sample type to test for SARS-CoV-2, the use of human feces. Fecal samples were collected from 100 asym-symptomatic individuals suspected to be infected with COVID-19, virus RNA was then extracted and profiled through Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). The antigen rapid diagnostic test revealed high positivity rate of 44%, but the real time polymerase chain reaction results on nasopharyngeal and fecal samples revealed a significant variation, high number of the patients tested positive with stool samples compared to the nasopharyngeal swabs, with 43 and 37%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals; however, the symptomatic registered a higher positivity of 25% compared to 20% among the asymptomatic patients. Vaccination only lowered the risk of infection, fully and partially vaccinated lowered the infection level to 10% compared to 20% among the unvaccinated. Finally, gender parity in relation to COVID19 was evaluated, more females (56%) compared to males were recruited in this study, out of which (20; 43.4%) were positive, and 26 (56.6%) were negative based on fecal RT-qPCR outcomes. Based on the outcome of this study, rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT) however cheap and or fast does not provide accurate information, moreover, the virus does not stay longer within the Oro-nasopharyngeal region, thus the invalid or negative results, thus use of feces should be adopted as a confirmatory test to ascertain the COVID19 status of an individual.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0437.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Semen; hesperidin; cryopreservation; oxidative stress; antioxidant; ram
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:35:03 CEST)
We conducted this study to determine the potential cryopreservative effects of different hesperidin (vitamin P; HSP) doses on ram semen after freeze-thawing. Semen samples were obtained from Sönmez rams by an artificial vagina. The samples were divided into six groups: control, 10, 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg/mL HSP (C, HSP10, HSP50, HSP100, HSP250, and HSP500, respectively). At the end of the study, sperm motility and kinetic parameters, plasma membrane acrosome integrity (PMAI), high mitochondrial membrane potential (HMMP), viability, lipid peroxidation levels (LPL), chromatin damage, oxidant parameters, and antioxidant parameters were assayed. None of the doses of HSP added to the semen extender showed any enhancing effect on progressive motility compared to C (p>0.05). In fact, HSP500 had negative effects (p<0.05). Moreover, PMI activities were the highest at the HSP10 dose, while LPL values were the lowest (p<0.05). The doses of HSP10 and HSP50 added to the Tris extender medium showed positive effects on spermatozoon chromatin damage. Consequently, we can say that HSP doses used in this study are not effective on semen progressive motility, but the HSP10 dose is effective on PMAI and chromatin damage by reducing LPL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0436.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Uncertainty; Climate risk assessment; Impact chain; Climate change; Risk; Tourism risk; Heat index
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:23:03 CEST)
The Impact Chain framework for risk assessment has proven to be a robust and effective It is very useful to set up the conceptual framework associated to a given risk and allows accommodating naturally the different components that shape that However, the operationalization of the impact chain may not be straightforward, in particular due to the inherent uncertainties associated to the selected indicators and the assigned In this paper, we introduce an extension to the Impact Chain framework that allows to consider uncertainties in the different components of the risk In the framework of the UNCHAIN project, a web-based tool has been developed to ease the task of implementing that The tool has been applied to a case study on the loss of tourist attractiveness due to heat stress conditions on the Balearic island, Spain, to illustrate how uncertainties in different components of the impact chain can affect the robustness of the final risk Also, the tool provides an estimate of the sensitivity of the final risk to each component, which can be used to guide risk mitigation Finally, a proposal for the validation of the risk assessment is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Federated Learning Strategies; Relational-Regularized Autoencoder; Time-Series Classification
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:06:58 CEST)
Increasingly measured data in the context of smart cities can be used to develop new and innovative business models to increase efficiency and the value of life. A time-series classification algorithm can support to automatize many different processes such as forecasting services. In order to ensure data security and privacy, Federated Learning trains a global model collaboratively on multiple clients. Having different data-distributions and data-quantities across participating clients, neural networks suffer from slow convergence and overfitting. Based on different data-distributions, data-quantities and number of clients, we develop and evaluate different data-clustering strategies to update global model weights in comparison to the state of the art. We use public time-series data, generate various synthetic datasets and train a Relational-Regularized Autoencoder for classification purposes. Our results show an improvement of model performance concerning generalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0434.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Apis cerana; A. c. koreana; population; gene vitellogenin; genetic structure; nucleotide polymorphism; adaptation
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:02:03 CEST)
Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, are very important honey species for agriculture in Asian countries. In recent decades, A. cerana populations have sharply declined in all Asian countries as a result of Sacbrood Virus infection and have now recovered to their original size. It can change the genetic structure of local populations of A. cerana. We used the nuclear gene Vitellogenin VG to assess the genetic structure of local populations of A. cerana and the signature of adaptive selection. We performed a population genetic analysis of the honey bees A. cerana from South Korea in comparison with A. cerana samples from Russia, Japan, Nepal, and China. The sequences of the gene VG of a closely related honey bee species, A. mellifera, from India and Poland were used as outgroup samples. A comparative analysis of northern and southern A. cerana populations was performed. The signatures of positive adaptive selection were found in the local population of A. cerana. We performed the Tajima's neutrality D test for A. cerana populations from different local populations based on the gene VG exon sequences. All A. cerana populations showed signs of population size expansion following the possible recent decline in population sizes. The local populations of A. c. koreana were subdivided according to their geographical distribution into southern, northern, and central Korean clusters. The gene VG exon sequences can be used as informative markers for monitoring the changes in genetic structure and adaptation to the environment processes in A. cerana populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0433.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Dilation, von Neumann inequality, Non-Archimedean valued field, p-adic Hilbert space, Contraction, Unitary operator
Online: 28 September 2022 (07:13:18 CEST)
We introduce the notion of p-adic magic contraction on p-adic Hilbert space. We derive p-adic Halmos dilation, p-adic Egervary N-dilation, p-adic von Neumann inequality and p-adic Sz.-Nagy dilation for p-adic magic contraction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0432.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: eye evolution; opsin; photoreceptor; phototransduction; visual cycle
Online: 28 September 2022 (05:12:35 CEST)
Understanding the molecular underpinnings of the evolution of complex (multi-part) systems is a fundamental topic in biology. One unanswered question is the extent to which similar or different genes and regulatory interactions underlie similar complex systems across species. Animal eyes and phototransduction (light detection) are outstanding systems to investigate this question because some of the genetics underlying these traits are well-characterized in model organisms. However, comparative studies using non-model organisms are also necessary to understand the diversity and evolution of these traits. Here, we compare the characteristics of photoreceptor cells, opsins, and phototransduction cascades in diverse taxa, with particular focus on cnidarians. In contrast to the common theme of deep homology, whereby similar traits develop mainly using homologous genes, comparisons of visual systems - especially in non-model organisms - are beginning to highlight a “deep diversity” of underlying components, illustrating how variation can underlie similar complex systems across taxa. Although using candidate genes from model organisms across diversity was a good starting point to understand the evolution of complex systems, unbiased genome-wide comparisons and subsequent functional validation will be necessary to uncover unique genes that comprise complex systems of non-model groups to better understand biodiversity and its evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: blast furnace sludges; steelmaking sludges; carbothermal reduction; Waelz-kiln process; zinc; zinc oxide
Online: 28 September 2022 (04:30:09 CEST)
The prospects of processing blast furnace and steelmaking sludge using Waelz process in a laboratory rotary kiln is shown. The influence of varying thermal treatment modes, furnace atmosphere and type of reducing agents on the level of zinc reduction from sludges was analyzed. In general, the blast furnace sludge contains a high portion of iron (approx.48 wt. %) and can be reused as a charge after satisfactory zinc reduction. It was found that N- atmosphere and high content of the graphite or coke oven reducing agent in combination with high temperature can reduce the content of Zn in the sludge to 0.08 wt. % at 1200 °C for mixture of steelmaking and blast furnace sludge. A significant reduction in the Zn content to 0.66 wt. % occurs at 1100 °C. The content and type of reducing agent play an important role; graphite has shown a better reducing ability compared to coke oven dust. When nitrogen is used, zinc is reduced even without an additional reducing agent, since the carbon contained in the sludge is made use of for the reduction. In an air atmosphere, without the use of a reducing agent, there was no reduction in the Zn content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; menstruation; pregnancy outcomes; Influenza vaccines; VAERS
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:50:35 CEST)
Objectives: Assess rates of adverse events (AE) after COVID-19 vaccines experienced by women of reproductive age, focusing on pregnancy and menstruation, using data collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database. Design: Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting: US and global entries in US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). Participants CDC VAERS entries from January 1, 1998 to June 30, 2022. Interventions: None. Main Outcome and Measures: A proportional reporting ratio analysis is performed using data in the VAERS system comparing adverse events (AE) reported post COVID-19 vaccines with that of post-Influenza vaccines. Results: COVID-19 vaccines, when compared to the Influenza vaccines are associated with a significant increase in AE with all proportional reporting ratios of > 2.0: menstrual abnormality, miscarriage, fetal chromosomal abnormalities, fetal malformation, fetal cystic hygroma, fetal cardiac disorders, fetal arrhythmia, fetal cardiac arrest, fetal vascular mal-perfusion, fetal growth abnormalities, fetal abnormal surveillance, fetal placental thrombosis, low amniotic fluid, and fetal death/stillbirth (all p values were much smaller than 0.05). When normalized by time-available, doses-given, or persons-received, all COVID-19 vaccine AE far exceed the safety signal on all recognized thresholds. Conclusions: Pregnancy and menstrual abnormalities are significantly more frequent following COVID-19 vaccinations than that of Influenza vaccinations. A worldwide moratorium on the use of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy is advised until randomized prospective trials document safety in pregnancy and long-term follow-up in offspring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0428.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Innovation; Informal competition; credit access; Business plan; emerging countries
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:39:39 CEST)
This paper examines the influence of informal competition on SMEs innovation in the Eastern European transition economies. It investigates whether credit constraints mediate this relation. SMEs innovation is presented through four measures: Product innovation, Process innovation, Radical innovation and Green innovation. Using the BEEPs VI that covers the period from 2018-2020, we show that informal competition affects positively the product, process and radical innovation. Yet, it has a non-significant effect on green innovation. Besides, the informal sector increases SMEs credit constraints, which indirectly leads to less corporate innovation. The negative indirect effect restrains the positive direct effect. Hence, a partial mediation effect of credit constraints on the informal competition and the innovation proxies is reported with the exception of green innovation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Sars-CoV-2; Natural immunity; Cellular immunity; Vaccine-induced immunity; Hybrid immunity; Cross-reactivity; Omicron
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:38:36 CEST)
Background: Both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity to COVID-19 may be useful to reduce the mortality/morbidity of this disease, but still a lot of controversy exists. Aims: This narrative review analyzes the literature about: a) the duration of natural immunity; b) cellular immunity; c) cross-reactivity; d) the duration of post-vaccination immune protection; e) the probability of reinfection and its clinical manifestations in the recovered patients; f) comparisons between vaccinated and unvaccinated in the possible reinfections; g) the role of hybrid immunity; h) the effectiveness of natural and vaccine-induced immunity against Omicron variant; i) comparative incidence of adverse effects after vaccination in recovered individuals vs. COVID-19-naïve subjects. Material and Methods: through multiple search engines we investigated COVID-19 literature related to the aims of the review, published since April 2020 through July 2022, including also the previous articles pertinent to the investigated topics. Results: nearly 900 studies were collected and 238 pertinent articles were included. It was highlighted that the vast majority of individuals after COVID-19 develop a natural immunity both of cell-mediated and humoral type, which is effective over time and provides protection against both reinfection and serious illness. Vaccine-induced immunity was shown to decay faster than natural immunity. In general, the severity of the symptoms of reinfection is significantly lower than in the primary infection, with a lower degree of hospitalizations (0.06%) and an extremely low mortality. Conclusions: this narrative review regarding a vast number of articles highlighted the valuable protection induced by the natural immunity after COVID-19, which seems comparable or superior to the one induced by anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccination of the unvaccinated COVID-19-recovered subjects may not be indicated. Further research is needed in order to: a) measure the durability of immunity over time; b) evaluate both the impacts of Omicron-5 on vaccinated and healed subjects and of hybrid immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0410.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: plastic; tyres; waste; greenhouses; remote sensing; Copernicus; Sentinel-1; Sentinel-2
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:32:19 CEST)
The detection of waste plastics in the marine and terrestrial environment using satellite Earth Observation data offers the possibility of large-scale mapping, and reducing on-the-ground manual investigation. In addition, costs are kept to a minimum by utilizing free-to-access Copernicus data. A Machine Learning based classifier was developed to run on Sentinel-1 and -2 data. In support of the training and validation, a dataset was created with terrestrial and aquatic cases by manually digitizing varying landcover classes alongside plastics under the sub-categories of greenhouses, plastic, tyres and waste sites. The trained classifier, including an Artificial Neural Network and post-processing decision tree, was verified using five locations encompassing these different forms of plastic. Although exact matchups are challenging to digitize, the performance has generated high accuracy statistics, and the resulting land cover classifications have been used to map the occurrence of plastic waste in aquatic and terrestrial environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0427.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: sea cucumber; enhancement; Holothuria scabra; sea ranching
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:24:25 CEST)
Holothuria scabra Jaeger 1833, known as sandfish visually, Its visible external body has a soft, flexible texture. Sandfish is included in the Echinodermata phylum and Holothuroidea class, which has an important ecological and economic role. This research proposes to decide the suitability site in an intermediate culture model of sea ranching harvest type based on ecological, socio-cultural and Karimunjawa National Park zoning plan. Data collected has done in March 2020, November 2020 and August 2021. The data analysed on the environmental suitability level was based on several essential criteria matrices used by ArcGIS 10.8.2. They were four classes performed (high suitable, suitable that is enough, suitable with conditionals, and not suitable) based on each variable and matrix classification from main factor (6 variables), supporting factor (5 variables), dan another factors (1 variable). The highest score was 35, and the lowest was 23 during the class interval value. The analysis showed that the aquatic environment that was High Suitable (S1) for sandfish life was Gede Lagoon. It has been determined to be highly suitable for developing sandfish cultivation. Furthermore, the Sea Ranching Harvesting Type development would recommend being carried out in waters that do not have limiting factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); antipsychotic medication; polymorphism, insertion/deletion; treatment response
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:12:20 CEST)
We investigated whether a functional insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) influenced antipsychotic treatment. At baseline, and after 8 weeks of treatment with various antipsychotic medications, we assessed patients’ Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, PANSS factors, and metabolic syndrome-related parameters (fasting plasma lipid and glucose levels, and body mass index). A total of 186 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode psychosis patients or nonadherent chronic psychosis individuals (99 males and 87 females) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The ACE-I/D polymorphism was significantly associated with changes in PANSS psychopathology only (p < 0.05). Compared to ACE-II homozygous males, ACE-DD homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous males manifested significantly greater decreases in PANSS positive score, PANSS excitement factor, and PANSS cognitive factor. ACE-DD homozygous females manifested higher decreases in PANSS depression factor compared to ACE-II homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous females. The polymorphism’s effect size was estimated as moderate to strong, while its contribution to the PANSS psychopathology ranged from ~5.4–8.7%, with the lowest contribution observed for PANSS positive score changes and the highest for PANSS depressive factor changes. Our results indicated that ACE-I/D polymorphism had a statistically significant but weak gender-specific impact on psychopathology data and showed no association between ACE-I/D polymorphism and metabolic syndrome-related parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0425.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: High-dimensional time series; General Dynamic Factor Models; spiked covariance model; reduced-rank process; singular spectrum.
Online: 28 September 2022 (02:02:26 CEST)
For more than half a century, Manfred Deistler has been contributing to the construction of the rigorous theoretical foundations of the statistical analysis of time series and more general stochastic processes. Half a century of unremitting activity is not easily summarized in a few pages. In this short note, we chose to concentrate on a relatively little-known aspect of Manfred's contribution which nevertheless had quite an impact on the development of one of the most powerful tools of contemporary time series and econometrics: dynamic factor models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Candida albicans; Lactobacillus species; biofilm; probiotics
Online: 27 September 2022 (12:34:41 CEST)
Antifungal agents are not always efficient in resolving vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), a common genital infection caused by overgrowth of Candida spp., including Candida albicans, or preventing recurrent infections. Although lactobacilli (which are dominant microorganisms constituting healthy human vaginal microbiota) are important barriers against VVC, the Lactobacillus metabolite concentration needed to suppress VVC is unknown. Therefore, we quantitatively evaluated Lactobacillus metabolite concentrations to determine their effect on Candida spp., including 27 vaginal strains of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, and Limosilactobacillus vaginalis, with inhibitory abilities against biofilms of Candida clinical isolates. Lactobacillus culture supernatants suppressed viable bacteria by approximately 24%-92% relative to preformed Candida biofilms, but their suppression differed between strains, not species. Lactate production was necessary to suppress preformed biofilms and hyphal elongation of C. albicans, whereas hydrogen peroxide was not always essential. Both lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide were required to suppress Candida planktonic cell growth. Lactobacillus strains that significantly inhibited biofilm formation in culture supernatant also inhibited Candida adhesion to epithelial cells in an actual live bacterial adhesion competition test. Healthy human microflora and their metabolites may play important roles in the development of new antifungal agent against VVC caused by C. albicans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: community governance; conflict management; governance; peace; development; SSA
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:41:08 CEST)
This study provides an insightful overview of community-participatory governance and conflict management as instruments for utilizing resources for development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA is a region rich in natural resources but prone to conflict. The study is conceptual and critically engages the application of community governance and conflict management strategies that SSA countries need to adopt. The study praises the notion that community governance is characterized by recognizing and accepting intercultural diversity and creating a democratic institution for promoting good governance and conflict management in SSA. The study recommends that good community governance is required to drive local communities' development, growth, and transformation into a sturdy, innovative, and productive society capitalizing on opportunities. The study voice for the amalgamation of appropriate models and theories of governance cogently in the context of SSA due to the heterogeneity of communities. Therefore, to resolve conflict, conflict management, resolution, and transformation strategies are necessarily needed to accomplish a viable peace to maintain and sustain development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0422.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease; Neurorehabilitation; exergames; Azure Kinect; UPDRS; Movement Analysis; body tracking; telemedicine
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:27:37 CEST)
Motor impairments are among the most relevant, evident, and disabling symptoms of Parkinson’s disease that adversely affect quality of life, resulting in limited autonomy, independence, and safety. Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of physiotherapy and rehabilitation programs specifically targeted to the needs of Parkinsonian patients in supporting drug treatments and improving motor control and coordination. However, due to the expected increase of patients in the coming years, traditional rehabilitation pathways in healthcare facilities could become unsustainable. Consequently, new strategies are needed, in which technologies play a key role in enabling more frequent, comprehensive, and out-of-hospital follow-up. The paper proposes a vision-based solution using the new Azure Kinect DK sensor to implement an integrated approach for remote assessment, monitoring, and rehabilitation of Parkinsonian patients, exploiting non-invasive 3D tracking of body movements to objectively and automatically characterize both standard evaluative motor tasks and virtual exergames. Preliminary results show the system’s ability to quantify specific features of motor performance, easily monitor changes and disease progression over time, and the possibility of using exergames to support motor condition assessment and training. The main innovation relies precisely on the integration of evaluative and rehabilitative aspects, which could be used as a closed loop to design new protocols for remote management of patients tailored to their actual conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0421.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: electrospinning; microfibers; piezoelectric crystals; nitroanilines; fluorescence; functional organic materials
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:22:10 CEST)
N,N-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline (NNDM4NA, C8H10O2N2), is a superelastic and superplastic charge-transfer molecular crystal with a high molecular dipole moment, µ=7.95 D, which crystal-lizes in the acentric polar point group 2. Highly aligned poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) polymer micro-fibers with embedded NNDM4NA nanocrystals were fabricated using the electrospinning tech-nique. The composite fibers display an extraordinarily high piezoelectric output response, where for a small stress of 5.0x103 Nm-2, an effective piezoelectric voltage coefficient of geff=3.6 VmN-1 was obtained. The fibers were found to display solid state blue fluorescence with a long (147 ns) life-time decay. Furthermore, the composite fibers exhibit an average increase of 67% on the Young modulus reaching 55 MPa, while the tensile strength reaches 2.8 MPa when compared with solely PLLA fibers. The results show that nanocrystals, from small organic molecules, with elastic and piezoelectric properties form hybrid functional 2-dimensional luminescent array which are me-chanical strong and generate high output voltages making them promising for applications in energy harvesting and as solid-state blue emitters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Refugee Self-Settlement; Vulnerability; Post-Partition Kolkata; Jabar-Dakhal colony; Global South; Urban Ecology
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:17:21 CEST)
Refugee subject position is an evolving topic of contention in the world today with increased migrant and refugee mobilities. Urban refugee spaces are often segregated in the form of colonies, ethnic villages, even ghettos, embodying institutionalised discourses of apathy and violence. These spaces only occupy the cracks and margins of the normative, formal city, as appropriations of inhospitable natural terrains and urban systems. The paper discusses how refugees compete for resources for survival as “bio-political” subjects and are often held summarily responsible for causing ecological stress in host environments. After the 1947 Partition of the Indian subcontinent, millions of Hindu Bengali refugees from East Pakistan flooded the Eastern Indian states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. Kolkata particularly drew millions for better livelihood prospects. Facing government apathy and local violence, East-Bengali refugees appropriated the urban fringes of Kolkata and claimed their right to urban space through the political act of squatting or Jabar-Dakhal. The intent of this paper is to investigate and map the spatial distribution of East-Bengali refugee squatters and elaborate on how they transformed the terrain and distributed resources through self-management tactics. This spatial history case-study attempts to uncover locational data from archival government records, existing academic literature and fieldwork to visualise where the 145 pre-1950 and the 123 post-1950 Jabar-Dakhal colonies were located in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area. This case of successful refugee self-settlement is qualitatively read in relation to the major areas of ecological stress in Kolkata. One of the UN sustainable development goals is to make cities and human settlements ‘inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable’. This paper hopes to encourage further studies of urban refugee self-settlement and local integration as a viable but complex socio-political-environmental process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0419.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: COVID-19; social determinants of health; older people vulnerability; health welfare regimes
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:16:38 CEST)
As of July 7, 2022, the total number of confirmed cases caused by COVID-19 has reached 544,324 million, and the total number of 6.333 million deaths (WHO). Older people were globally the most vulnerable during the pandemic. This paper examined the mortality and psychological crisis of older people during the pandemic in four cities, namely Wuhan, Milan, London, and Hong Kong. The selection of cities was based on different degrees of social connectedness of older people and chronologically to cover the whole period of the outbreak from January 2020 to August 2022. Older people in Milan and Wuhan tended to rely on the close family relationship during times of crisis. Meanwhile, older people in Hong Kong and London were more dependent on social services. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed to analyze the situations of older people under different government responses and the strengths and weaknesses of respective healthcare systems. Government reports and official statistics were used to illustrate the seriousness of each city's COVID-19 outbreak while stories reported by the press, NGOs, and journal articles were used to reflect the reactions of the older people. Interactions of social culture, health care provisions, and government responses to the pandemic were discussed from the perspective of health welfare regimes. On one hand, results showed that governments have not learned from the experiences of other countries. On the other hand, older people have not successfully coped with the life-threatening stress by breaking institutional boundaries and redefining cultural norms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0418.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: circRNA; skeletal muscle satellite cells; proliferation; differentiation
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:57:42 CEST)
The proliferation and differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) are highly complicated. Apart from the regulatory signaling cascade driven by the protein-coding genes, non-coding RNAs like microRNAs (miRNA) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) play essential roles in this biological process. However, circRNA functions in MuSCs proliferation and differentiation remain largely to be elucidated. Here, we screened for an exonic circTCF4 based on our previous RNA-Seq data, specifically expressed during the development of the longest dorsal muscle in goats. Subsequently, the circular structure and whole sequence of circTCF4 were verified using Sanger sequencing. Besides, circTCF4 was spatiotemporally expressed in multiple tissues from goats but strikingly enriched in muscles. Furthermore, circTCF4 suppressed MuSCs proliferation and differentiation, independent of AGO2 binding. Finally, we conducted Poly(A) RNA-Seq using cells treated with small interfering RNA targeting circTCF4 and found that circTCF4 would affect multiple signaling pathways, including insulin signaling pathway and AMPK signaling pathway related to muscle differentiation. Our results provide additional solid evidence for circRNA regulating skeletal muscle formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Recreational substance abuse; drug abuse; marijuana; amphetamine; acute ischemic stroke; risk factors; young adult; NIS; Stroke; Sudden Cardiac Death
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:41:00 CEST)
Background: Substance use continues to be on the rise in the United States and has been linked to new onset cardiovascular (CVDs) and cerebrovascular disorders (CeVDs) leading to hospitalizations. We aimed to study the association of different subtypes of substance use disorders (SUDs) among hospitalized patients, with the different subtypes of CVDs and CeVDs, using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database. Additionally, we aimed to assess the odds of hospitalizations with new onset CVDs and CeVDs among patients with different types of SUDs. Methods: A retrospective study of the NIS database (2016-2017) using the ICD-10-CM codes was performed. The hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of SUDs were identified. Weighted univariate analysis using the chi-square test and multivariate survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate for the incidence, prevalence, and odds of association between vascular events and SUDs. Results: There were a total of 58,259,589 hospitalizations, out of which 21.42% had SUDs. Out of all the hospitalized patients between the age 18-50, more patients had SUDs than not (31.83%, p< 0.0001). This difference existed for all the different subtypes of SUDs including alcohol related disorder (42.61%), amphetamine dependence (76.17% vs 31.83%), cannabis related disorder (75.17%), cocaine related disorders (57.87%), hallucinogen related disorder (82.91%), inhalant related disorders (67.25%), opioid related disorders (52.86%), and nicotine dependence (35.72%). We found a significant association of acute ischemic stroke with amphetamine dependence (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.14-1.33), cocaine related disorders (1.17, 1.12-1.23) and nicotine dependence (1.42, 1.40-1.43). Similarly, the association of intracerebral hemorrhage was higher with amphetamine dependence (2.58, 2.26-2.93), and cocaine related disorders (1.62, 1.46-1.79). The association of subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted to be higher with amphetamine dependence (1.82, 1.48-2.24) and nicotine dependence (1.47, 1.39-1.55). In terms of association of cardiovascular disorders with SUDs,the patients with myocardial infarction had higher odds of nicotine dependence (1.85, 1.83-1.87) than not, Similarly, the patients with angina pectoris were noted to have a higher association with cocaine related disorders (2.21, 1.86-2.62), and those with atrial fibrillation had a higher association alcohol related disorders (1.14, 1.11-1.17). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the variability of CVD and CeVD in patients hospitalized for SUD. Findings from our study may help promote increased awareness and early management of these events. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific effects of frequency and dose on the incidence and prevalence of CVD and CeVD in patients with SUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0416.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: GEE; Landsat 8 OLI; Multi-linear regression; Remote Sensing; Vegetation indices; Wheat and barley
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:35:20 CEST)
Wheat and barley are among the primary food resources of the world population; therefore, their growth and observation are essential in farms to enhance food security worldwide. On top of that, careful observation of the product is essential to find solutions for the issues faced during their production and to reduce the impacts of weather changes. With the advancement of Remote Sensing technology, the observation and estimation process has increased. In this study, numbers of spectral vegetation indices was used along with canopy biophysical properties ( LAI ) and biochemical properties (chlorophyll), there calculated from (Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2) satellite data. The wheat and barley samples were collected before were be ready for harvest, and a relation with the vegetarian indices was established using the Multi-Linear Regression module, in which the equations used in predicting the harvest were developed and used to create a graph for expected harvest. The result indicated that there is a strong relationship between the vegetation indices of Sentinel-2 and Landsat images and the actual grain yield with R2 of 0.77 and 0.71, respectively. The results show that the strongest correlation is observed between the LAI data obtained from Sentinel data and cereal yield data, with an R2 0.68, and the highest correlation for the indices of Landsat images is observed in the NDWI with R2 0.59 and the lowest degree of error was in the root mean square error (RMSE) for the Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 with 0.57 and 1.54. In addition, this study also showed that the least relationship for grain yield prediction was observed between the NDRI for Sentinel-2 (R2 0.1) and SAVI for Landsat image (R2 0.47).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0415.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Stylometry; Signal Processing; Word Embedding; Deep Neural Networks
Online: 27 September 2022 (07:55:25 CEST)
Classical religious texts remain an essential part of human culture due to their undiminished influence on the advancement of civilization. Although their entirely divine origin is questioned repeatedly, explicit or implicit quoting and adherence to their basic guidelines are fundamental in modern society. In this respect, these documents’ inner structure and linguistic style appear to be pivotal. This paper considers the topic from the standpoint of small textual patterns classified using deep learning methods, traditionally applied to analyze short textual material like tweets. We divide the considered documents into small sequential chunks imitating tweets and categorizing them, classifying an entire text. The proposed method demonstrates that the religious text collections correspond to stable ”Twitter”-like structures that adequately reflect stylistic properties. So, concise word combinations seem to be an inborn textual attribute that adequately outlines the proposed multi-source authorship. This approach differs from traditional methods of analyzing classical religious documents, which are based on the consideration and interpretation of relatively long templates. The case study consists of three famous collections of Mosaic authorship in the Old Testament (Hebrew), Pauline authorship in the New Testament (Greek), and Al-Ghazali authorship (Arabic). The obtained results go well with most previously expressed evaluations and complement them with new implications, particularly in the authorship of two famous manuscripts attributed to Al-Ghazali.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0414.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: lithium sulfur battery; polysulfide; shuttle effect; dendrite; polyaniline; graphite; COMSOL
Online: 27 September 2022 (07:38:09 CEST)
To mitigate lithium dissolution and polysulfide shuttle effect phenomena in high energy lithium sulfur batteries (LISBs), a conductive, flexible, and easily modified polymer composite layer was applied on the anode. The polymer composite layer includes polyaniline and functionalized graphite. The electrochemical behavior of LISBs was studied by galvanostatic charge/discharge tests from 1.7 to 2.8 V up to 90 cycles and via COMSOL Multiphysics simulation software. No apparent overcharge occurred during the charge state, which suggests that the shuttle effect of polysulfides was effectively prevented. The COMSOL Multiphysics simulation provides a venue for optimal prediction of the ideal concentration and properties of the polymer composite layer to be used in the LISBs. The testing and simulation results determined that the polymer composite layer diminished the amount of lithium polysulfide species and decreased the amount of dissolved lithium ions in the LISBs. In addition, the charge/discharge rate of up to 2.0 C with a cycle life of 90 cycles was achieved. The knowledge acquired in this study was important not only for the design of efficient new electrode materials, but also for understanding the effect of the polymer composite layer on the electrochemical cycle stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0413.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Consortium Blockchain; Ring signature; Blockchain privacy; Blockchain security; Access Control; Blockchain big data
Online: 27 September 2022 (07:35:53 CEST)
Banking sectors commit modern working frameworks and models smooth development based on decentralization with keeping money confront in unused ranges and differing activities. Consortium Blockchain Privacy becomes a major concern and the challenge of Most of banking sectors.Development without being hampered being a major concern it can store confirmed, Data privacy includes assuring protection for both insider ad outsider threats therefore access control of Ring signature could help to secure Privacy of inside and outside threats by secure process by RSBAC using CIA triad privacy Confidentiality, Availability, Integrity.This paper proposes a ring signature-based on access control mechanism for determining who a user is and then regulating that person's access to and use of a system's resources. In a nutshell, access control restricts who has access to a system. It also restricts access to system resources to users who have been identified as having the necessary privileges and permissions. The proposed paradigm satisfies the needs of both workflow and non-workflow systems in an enterprise setting. The traits of the conditional purposes, roles, responsibilities, and policies provide the foundation for it. It ensures that internal risks such as database administrators are protected.Finally, it provides the necessary protection in the event that the data is published.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0488.v7
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: solar system; complete relativity; nature; mechanics
Online: 27 September 2022 (05:09:37 CEST)
Origin, mechanics and properties of the Solar System are analysed in the framework of the Complete Relativity theory (by the same author). According to Complete Relativity, everything is relative. Any apparent absolutism (notably invariance to scale of dimensional constants, absolute elementariness, invariance to time) is an illusion stemming from limits imposed by [or on] polarized observers that will inevitably lead to misinterpretation of phenomena (another illusion) occurring on non-directly observable scales or even observable but distant scales in space or time. If everything is relative, reference frames will exist where particles are planets and where planets are living beings. Earth is, therefore, analysed here in more detail, both as a particle and, as a living evolving being (of, hypothesized, extremely introverted intelligence). The analysis confirms the postulates and hypotheses of the theory (ie. existence of discrete vertical energy levels) with a significant degree of confidence. During the analysis, some new hypotheses have emerged. These are discussed and confirmed with various degrees of confidence. To increase confidence or refute some hypotheses, experimental verification is necessary. Main conclusions that stem from my research and are further confirmed in this paper are: universes are, indeed, completely relative; Solar System is a scaled (inflated, in some interpretations) Carbon isotope with a nucleus in a condensed (bosonic) state and components in various vertically excited states; life is common everywhere, albeit extroverted complex forms are present on planetary surfaces only during planetary neurogenesis; anthropogenic climate change is only a part (trigger from one perspective) of bigger global changes; major extinction events on a surface of a planet are relative extinctions, a regular part of transformation and transfer of life in the process of planetary neurogenesis.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0162.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: epidemiological model; dwarf peak phenomenon; herd immunity; Covid-19
Online: 27 September 2022 (04:51:54 CEST)
Compartmental models that dynamically divide the host population in categories such as susceptible, infected and immune constitute the mainstream of epidemiological modelling. Effectively such models treat infection and immunity as binary variables. We constructed an individual based stochastic model that considers immunity as a continuous variable and incorporates factors that bring about small changes in immunity. The small immunity effects (SIE) comprise cross immunity by other infections, small increments in immunity by sub clinical exposures and slow decay in the absence of repeated exposure. The model makes qualitatively different epidemiological predictions including repeated waves without the need for new variants, dwarf peaks (peak and decline of a wave much before reaching herd immunity threshold), symmetry in the upward and downward slopes of a wave, endemic state, new surges after variable and unpredictable gaps, new surge after vaccinating majority of population. In effect the SIE model raises alternative possible causes of the universally observed dwarf and symmetric peaks and repeated surges, observed particularly well during the Covid-19 pandemic. We also suggest testable predictions to differentiate between the alternative causes for repeated waves. The model further shows complex interactions of different interventions that can be synergistic as well as antagonistic. The model suggests that interventions that are beneficial in the short run can also be hazardous in the long run.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Huntington’s disease; circadian rhythm; clock genes; adult neurogenesis; chemogenetics
Online: 27 September 2022 (04:45:35 CEST)
Huntington’s disease (HD) causes progressive movement disorders and cognitive deficits. Besides, sleep disturbances and emotional distress are prominent clinical signatures of HD. The experimental subjects and HD human brains display altered regenerative plasticity resulting from aberrant neurogenic and nonneurogenic areas. Sleep disorders, emotional disruption, and cognitive deficits have been linked to impaired cell cycle events of neural stem cells (NSC) in neurodegenerative disorders. In a physiological state, circadian clock gene pathways play important roles in the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of NSC, whereas the irregular circadian clock pathway is attributed to impairment in the neurogenic process. The recent advancement of chemogenetic-based approaches represents a potential scientific tool to rectify the abnormal circadian clock which may aid in mitigating neurogenic failure in the brain. Notably, GABAergic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the brain plays a key role in the regulation of neuroplasticity and circadian rhythm. Thus, this conceptual review article addresses the potential link between sleep disorder and aberrant neurogenic events in HD and proposes chemogenetic kindling of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) -expressing GABAergic neurons in the brain as a therapeutic strategy for reprogramming the clock gene pathways in mitigating the neurodegenerative failure in HD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0229.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Anti-aging therapy; lipofuscin; SENS; TFEB; intracellular microbe; and synthetic chemotaxis
Online: 27 September 2022 (04:20:31 CEST)
Lipofuscin is indigestible garbage that accumulates in the autophagic vesicles and cytosol of post-mitotic cells with age. Drs. Brunk and Terman postulated that lipofuscin accumulation is the main or at least a major driving factor in aging. They even posited that the evolution of memory is the reason why we get lipofuscin at all, as stable synaptic connections must be maintained over time, meaning that the somas of neurons must also remain in the same locale. In other words, they cannot dilute out their garbage over time through cell division. Mechanistically, their position certainly makes sense given that rendering a large percentage of a post-mitotic cell’s lysosomes useless must almost certainly negatively affect that cell and the surrounding microenvironment. Here, I explore the possibility that the accumulation of lipofuscin to some extent underlies all other categories of age-related damage as defined by Dr. Aubrey de Grey. I do not think that lipofuscin removal will reverse/prevent all forms of aging, just the major component facing us currently. In this piece, I will review what is known about lipofuscin accumulation from evolutionary and mechanistic standpoints and discuss ways of removing it from non-dividing (or slowly-dividing) cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0411.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: small urban green areas; timeseries; GEOBIA; NDVI; MSAVI2; Planet
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:59:34 CEST)
The importance of small urban green areas has increased in the context of rapid urbanization and densification of the urban tissue. The analysis of these areas through remote sensing has been limited due to the low spatial resolution of freely available satellite images. We propose a timeseries analysis on 3 m resolution Planet images, using GEOBIA and vegetation indices, with the aim of extracting and assessing the quality of small urban green areas in two different climatic and biogeographical regions – temperate (Bucharest, Romania) and mediterranean (Athens, Greece). Our results have shown high accuracy (over 91%) regarding the extraction of small urban green areas in both cities, across all analysed images. The timeseries analysis showed consistency in location for around 55% of the identified surfaces throughout the entire period. The vegetation indices registered higher values in the temperate region, due to the vegetation characteristics and the planning of the two cities. For the same reasons, the increase in vegetation density and quality, as a result of the distance from the city centre and the decrease in the density of built-up areas is more obvious in Athens. The proposed method provides valuable insights in the distribution and quality of small urban green areas at city level and can represent the ground basis for many analyses, currently limited by poor spatial resolution.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0410.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: 2D floodplain modeling; HEC-RAS; River Renaturation; finite difference approximation
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:53:09 CEST)
River renaturation can be an effective management method for restoring the floodplain's natural capacity and minimizing the effects during high flow periods. A 1D-2D HEC-RAS model, in which the flood plain was considered as 2D and the main channel as 1D, was used to simulate flooding in the restored reach of the Spree River. When computing in this model, finite volume and finite difference approximations using the Preissmann approach are used for the 1D and 2D models, respectively. To comprehend the sensitivity of the parameters and model, several scenarios were simulated using different time steps and grid sizes. Additionally, dykes, dredging, and changes to the vegetation pattern have been used to simulate flood mitigation measures. The model predicted that flooding would occur mostly in the downstream portion of the channel in the majority of the scenarios without mitigation measures, whereas with mitigation measures, flooding in the floodplain would be greatly reduced. By preserving the natural balance on the channel's floodplain, the restored area needs to be kept in good condition. Therefore, mitigating measures that balance the area's economic and environmental aspects must be considered in light of the potential for floods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0087.v9
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Sieve of Eratosthenes; Goldbach conjecture; Polignac conjecture; Twin Prime conjecture
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:53:01 CEST)
We demonstrate a new quantitative method to the sieve of Eratosthenes, which is an alternative to the sieve of Legendre. In this method, every element of a given set is sifted out once only, and therefore, this method is free of the Mobius function and of the parity barrier. Using this method, we prove that every sufficiently large even number is the sum of two primes, and that every even number is the difference of two primes in infinitely many ways.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: chlorhexidine; bioactive liquid; oral wound healing; pain index score; early wound healing score
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:37:27 CEST)
After surgery, oral cavity healing occurs in a hostile environment and requires proper oral care and hygiene to accelerate recovery. The aim of the current study is to investigate and compare the bioreactivity characteristics of chlorhexidine based (CHX) mouth rinse and a novel bone bioactive liquid (BBL) mouth rinse on oral healing within seven days application post-surgery. A randomized, double blind clinical trial conducted in 81 patients. The mouth rinses were applied twice a day for a period of 7 days. The visual analog scale (VAS) protocol was applied to measure pain index. Early wound healing score (EHI) was determined in evaluate the oral cavity healing progress. No adverse effects were observed using the mouth washes, but CHX resulted in teeth staining. CHX and BBL were sufficient to reduce pain over a period of 7 days. However, the BBL group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in VAS stating day 4. Relative to CHX group, the EHI scores were significantly higher in the BBL group, independent from the tooth location. No gender differences were observed in both VAS and EHI scores. Relative to the commercially available CHX, BBL mouth rinse reduced pain and accelerated oral cavity healing. Suggesting an improvements of oral cavity microenvironment at the wound site that mediates soft tissue regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Public transportation; Automated vehicles; economic viability; business model
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:37:23 CEST)
During the past few years many projects and initiatives were undertaken deploying and testing automated vehicles for public transportation and logistics. However in spite of their ambition, all of these deployments stayed on the level of elaborated experimentation deploying no more than 4 maximum 5 AVs in rather small sites (few Kms of roads) and never really reached the level of large scale “commercial” deployment of transport services. The reasons for this are many, but the most important being the lack of economically viability and commercially realistic models, the lack of scalability of the business and operating models, and the lack of inclusive citizen/user centric services required for the large end-user acceptation and adoption of the solutions. In this paper, based on the experience gained in the H2020 AVENUE project, we present the missing pieces of the puzzle, ad which will be addressed in the Horizon Europe project ULTIMO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0407.v1
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:27:50 CEST)
A number of research projects and a rich literature have dealt with the theme of abandoned medieval villages in Sardinia since the end of the 60s of the last century. Some more or less precise catalogues and reviews of villages in limited territories have been published. Only recently, however, this subject is being addressed in an interdisciplinary manner, combining traditional historical research with the results of archaeological surveys and excavation campaigns, geo-archaeology, toponymy, paleoclimatology. This allows us to have a picture of the landscape and human settlement evolution with its historical changes, conditioned not only by institutional superstructures but also by human and natural traumatic events. Particular attention will be given to the sudden changes that occurred between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. To carry out this survey, it is possible to use some very powerful IT tools which, through the aggregation, organization, correlation and management of information, allow the geo-localization of abandoned villages as proven by the documentary evidence. Thus, on this documentation, existing and acquired in the future, is founded the construction of the related information system. The most easy and suitable tools for this purpose are the CMSs (Content Management Systems) which, in association with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) engines, allow spatial and contextual analysis of the settlements, as they were inserted in their territory. This type of tools aggregates different peculiarities of the object of study, supporting a multidisciplinary reading on the argument. The computerized tools, integrated as a system, offer the possibility to implement it, feeding it and correcting it continuously, basing on new acquisitions. In this study, we will examine a historical areal, for which we have a sufficient number of sources available: Sarrabus, Colostrai and Quirra, adding to the geographical visual information, the temporal visual evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: community pharmacy practice; dispensing quality; antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; Audit Project Odense
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:26:25 CEST)
Background. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control describes the community pharmacist as gatekeeper to the quality of antibiotic use. The pharmacist has the responsibility to guard safe and effective antibiotic use; however, little is known about how this is implemented in practice. Aims. To assess the feasibility of a method to audit the quality of antibiotic dispensing in community pharmacy practice and to explore antibiotic dispensing practices in Greece, Lithuania, Poland, and Spain. Methods. The Audit Project Odense methodology to audit antibiotic dispensing practice was adapted for use in community pharmacy practice. Community pharmacists registered antibiotic dispensing on a specifically developed registration chart and were asked to provide feedback on the registration method. Results. Altogether twenty pharmacists were recruited in four countries. They registered a total of 409 dispenses of oral antibiotics. Generally, pharmacists were positive about the feasibility of implementing the registration chart in practice. The frequency of checking for allergies, contraindications and interactions differed largely between the four countries. Pharmacists provided little advice to patients. The pharmacists rarely contacted prescribers. Conclusion. This tool seems to make it possible to get a useful picture of antibiotic dispensing patterns in community pharmacies. Dispensing practice does not seem to correspond with EU guidelines according to these preliminary results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0405.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: deep frying; olive oil; sesame oil; sesame lignans; Total Polar Compounds
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:11:31 CEST)
Fresh potatoes were deep-fried in olive oil (OO) & extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and their blends with 5%, 10% and 20% v/v sesame oil (SO). This is the first report on the use of sesame oil as natural source of antioxidant for olive oil deep-frying. Oil was evaluated for Peroxide Value (PV), Free Fatty Acids (FFA), K232, K270, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Total Phenols (TP) until Total Polar Compounds (TPCs) reached 25%. Sesame lignan transformations were monitored through Reverse-phase HPLC. While TPCs in olive oils increased at a steady rate, the addition of 5%, 10% and 20% v/v SO created a time window lasting 1, 2 and 3 hours, respectively, where TPCs were constant. SO addition to OO increased the total frying time. Furthermore, the addition of SO reduced the peroxides formation rate for both OO and EVOO. EVOO was more resistant to oxidation than OO as measured by TPCs and TEAC, while frying time raised from 21.5 to 25.25 h when EVOO replaced OO. The increase in frying time for olive oil but not for extra virgin olive oil, after SO addition, is pointing out a niche market for extra virgin olive oil in deep-frying.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Recurrent Neural Network; Renewable Energy; Power consumption; Open Power System Data; Multivariate Exploratory; Time series forecasting
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:44:29 CEST)
The environmental issues we are currently facing require long-term prospective efforts for sustainable growth. Renewable energy sources seem to be one of the most practical and efficient alternatives in this regard. Understanding a nation's pattern of energy use and renewable energy production is crucial for developing strategic plans. No previous study has been performed to explore the dynamics of power consumption with the change in renewable energy production on a country-wide scale. In contrast, a number of deep learning algorithms demonstrated acceptable performance while handling sequential data in the era of data-driven predictions. In this study, we developed a scheme to investigate and predict total power consumption and renewable energy production time series for eleven years of data using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). The dynamics of the interaction between the total annual power consumption and renewable energy production are investigated through extensive Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) and a feature engineering framework. The performance of the model is found satisfactory through the comparison of the predicted data with the observed data, visualization of the distribution of the errors and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) value of 0.084. Higher performance is achieved through the increase in the number of epochs and hyperparameter tuning. The proposed framework can be used and transferred to investigate the trend of renewable energy production and power consumption and predict the future scenarios for different communities. Incorporation of the cloud-based platform into the proposed pipeline may lead to real-time forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Cell Disease; Stroke; Neuroimaging; Hematology; Computational fluid dynamics
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:38:29 CEST)
The main objective of this study is to demonstrate proof of principle that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is a tool for studying the contribution of covert and overt vascular architecture to the risk of cerebrovascular disease in in sickle cell disease (SCD) as well as uncover one or more mechanism of response to therapy such as chronic red blood cell (cRBC) transfusion. We analyzed baseline (screening), pre-randomization and study exit magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) images from 10 (5 each from the transfusion and observation arms) pediatric sickle SCD participants in the silent cerebral infarct transfusion (SIT) trial, using CFD modeling. We reconstructed the intracranial portion of the internal carotid artery and branches and extracted the geometry using 3D Slicer. We cut specific potions of the large intracranial artery to include segments of the internal carotid, middle, anterior, and posterior cerebral artery such that the vessel segment analyzed extended from the intracranial beginning of the internal carotid artery up to immediately after (~0.25 inches) the middle cerebral artery branching point. Cut models were imported into Ansys 2021R2/2022R1 and laminar and time-dependent flow simulation was performed. Change in time averaged mean velocity, wall shear stress, and vessel tortuosity were compared between the observation and cRBC arm. We did not observe a correlation between time averaged mean velocity (TAMV) and mean transcranial doppler (TCD) velocity at study entry. There was also no difference in change in time average mean velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), and vessel tortuosity between the observation and cRBC transfusion arms. WSS and TAMV were abnormal for 2 (developed TIA) out of the 3 participants (one participant had SCI) that developed neurovascular outcomes. CFD approaches allows for the evaluation of vascular topology and hemodynamics in SCD using MRA images. In this proof of principle study, we show that CFD could be a useful tool and we intend to carry out future studies with a larger sample to enable more robust conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0402.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Rechargeable Sensor Network; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; One-to-one Charging; Space-time Collaboration; Optimal Charging Trajectory
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:07:41 CEST)
Aiming at the problem of low charging efficiency caused by the scattered sensor nodes in traditional wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs), a UAV-assisted WRSN Online Charging Strategy Based on Dynamic Queue and Improved K-means (UOCS) is proposed. The scheme assumes that the energy consumption of nodes is unpredictable, and only generates charging requests when the energy is lower than a threshold, and performs on-demand responses to nodes that issue charging requests. The scheme combines the characteristics of one-to-one charging of UAVs, the selection and allocation timing of waiting queues and the number of UAVs, and the improved K-means partitioning based on space-time coordination(SPKM), which simplifies the problem of coordinated charging of multiple UAVs and maximizes energy. Using the efficiency and charging success rate, the optimal charging trajectory can be found under the constraint that the node will not starve to death due to power shortage. Finally, a simulation comparison experiment is carried out with the existing UAV charging scheduling strategy. UOCS achieves the optimal node survival rate with low algorithm complexity.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: yamanaka factors; oskm; microbubbles; Entomopoxvirus
Online: 26 September 2022 (15:01:58 CEST)
Epigenetic reprogramming using cyclic expression of Yamanaka factors has been demonstrated to rejuvenate on a systemic level in animal models with no obvious deleterious effects. Here we discuss a strategy for cyclic and systemic expression of Yamanaka factors in wild-type animals amenable for adaptation as a human therapy. This is based on the use of the little- known Amsacta moorei Entomopoxvirus vector in combination with microbubble mediated focused ultrasound-driven blood vessel permeabilization to facilitate the system-wide distribution of the virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID 19; health personnel; Burnout, Psychological; COVID 19 stress syndrome
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:42:28 CEST)
Purpose: The healthcare pressure and emotional tension during the first year of the COVID 19 pandemic have been able to affect the health of healthcare personnel. Physical and psychological symptoms attributed to a work situation and or COVID 19 infection are describ ed in health professionals. Objective: to analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms directly or indirectly related to COVID 19 (occupational causes, illness or persistent COVID 19) after a 12 month pandemic. Methods: #COVID19PS is a cro ss sectional analytical study using an ad hoc questionnaire distributed through social media to record physical and psychological symptoms related to COVID 19 in health professionals. Variables: age, sex, geographical origin, profession, characteristics of the work environment, physical symptoms, Maslach test ( for health professionals. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis using t distribution, Chi square, ANOVA using IBM SPSS v20®. Results: N=1.159 ( women, 21.8% men; 44.6% <35 years old, 23.9% between 35 45years); 96.5% Spaniards. Professions: 17.1% medicine, 12.7% nursing, 32% physiotherapy, 24.1% occupational therapy, 14.1% others; 47.5% belonged to direct care for COVID 19 patients. 28.2% had passed the disease and 3.7% had it acti ve. 61.6% had physical symptoms ( neurological, 31.7% musculoskeletal, 29.6% general, 20.9% gastrointestinal, 20.3% skin, 19.2% cardiovascular, 16% respiratory (p= 96.9% had a medium high Burnout index (p= 48.3% with high levels of Emot ional Exhaustion, 62.9% with medium high level of Depersonalization and 74% with medium low levels of Personal Accomplishment. Conclusion: all health professions present high rates of physical and burnout consequences of the first year of COVID 19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0399.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis; Correlations; Energy consumption; Urban Density
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:39:48 CEST)
Although impending urbanization is a well-acknowledged problem, there is a rising concern about how the urban forms will change and what can be the impacts on the global energy demand. As hubs of economic, social and cultural activities, cities are major energy consumers and GHG emissions. Energy consumption is a technical or a spatial problem? From Newman and Kenworthy to today, several studies have tried to shed light on this nexus. In this work, the controversial paradigm of urban density is discussed as a key component of the fight against climate change impacts. Concerning energy consumption, an in-depth bibliometric analysis is developed to identify the interdependencies of the terms. As a key ‘promise’ of an efficient urban configuration, density has been the core of diverse studies but with still under exploration arguments. This work provides a way forward for planners seeking to design strategies related to dense urban tissues exploring controversial paradigms as a key solution for energy-efficient problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0398.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river discharge; hydro informatics; water resource; data-driven; deep learning; LSTM
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:30:24 CEST)
River flow prediction is a pivotal task in the field of water resource management during the era of rapid climate change. The highly dynamic and evolving nature of the climatic variables e.g., precipitation has a significant impact on the temporal distribution of the river discharge in recent days making the discharge forecasting even more complicated for diversified water-related issues e.g., flood prediction and irrigation planning. To predict the discharge, various physics-based numerical models are used using numerous hydrologic parameters. Extensive lab-based investigation and calibration are required to reduce the uncertainty involved in those parameters. However, in the age of data-driven predictions, several deep learning algorithms showed satisfactory performance in dealing with sequential data. In this research, Long Short-term Memory (LSTM) neural network regression model is trained using over 80 years of daily data to forecast the discharge time series up to 3 days ahead of time. The performance of the model is found satisfactory through the comparison of the predicted data with the observed data, visualization of the distribution of the errors and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) value of 0.09. Higher performance is achieved through the increase in the number of epochs and hyper parameter tuning. This model can be transferred to other locations with proper feature engineering and optimization to perform univariate predictive analysis and potentially be used to perform real-time river discharge prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: foreign aid; external debt; debt overhang; dependency theory; Ghana; VECM
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:21:57 CEST)
Over recent years, the Ghanaian economy has struggled to find its feet on the ground despite rising public debt and unending inflows of foreign aid. Against this backdrop, this study employs the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) estimation technique on data from 1970 to 2020 to test the usefulness of the debt overhang hypothesis and the dependency theory in the special case of Ghana. The results confirm evidence of the debt overhang hypothesis and the center-periphery wisdom of the dependency theory in Ghana. The findings depict that an increase in external debt stock and total debt service on external debt have both short and long-run growth-limiting effects on the Ghanaian economy. Similarly, foreign aid catalyzes growth only in the short run and later suppresses rather than stimulates economic growth in Ghana over the long run. The study recommends that harnessing domestic resources, maintaining fiscal discipline by cutting down unproductive expenditures, enhancing an effective tax system, and promoting institutional capabilities to counteract corruption and openness to trade are better ways to fast-track growth development in Ghana.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0396.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: foundations of physics; electrodynamics; electromagnetic wave; magnetic field; electric field; Ampere; Biot-Savart
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:04:47 CEST)
The well-known coupling between the magnetic and electric fields in electromagnetic radiation is revisited in light of the recent introduction of a microscopic theory for the Ørsted magnetic field induction. I argue that, if the Ørsted magnetic field induction does indeed have a microscopic origin rather than the continuum solution offered by the Maxwell-Ampere equation, the "electromagnetic wave"' propagating in vacuum will not have a magnetic component.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0395.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: chilling requirement; chlorophyll fluorescence; non-photochemical quenching; PAM; photoprotection; stress resilience; winter dormancy
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:01:44 CEST)
Dormancy is a physiological state that confers winter hardiness to and orchestrates phenological phase progression in temperate perennial plants. Weather fluctuations caused by climate change increasingly disturb dormancy onset and release in many plant species including tree crops leading to aberrant growth, flowering, and fruiting. Currently, research in this field is impeded by the lack of affordable non-invasive methods for on-line monitoring of dormancy. We report on an automatic framework for low-cost, long-term, and scalable dormancy studies in deciduous plants. The proposed method is based on continuous near-field sensing of the photosynthetic activity of shoots via pulse-amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence sensors connected remotely to a data processing system. The resulting high-resolution time series of JIP-test parameters indicative of the responsiveness of the photosynthetic apparatus to environmental stimuli are subjected to frequency-domain analysis. The proposed approach allows to overcome the variance coming from diurnal changes of insolation and to derive estimations on the depth of dormancy. Our approach was validated over three seasons in an experimental apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) orchard by collating the non-invasive estimations with the results of traditional methods (growing of the cuttings obtained from the tress at different phases of dormancy) and the output of commonly used chilling requirement models. We discuss the advantages of the proposed monitoring framework such as prompt detection of freeze damages along with its potential limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0394.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Second Law of thermodynamics; Universe as a closed thermodynamic system; entropy of the Universe; temperature of the Universe; quantum state of the Universe; information within the Universe; complexity of the Universe
Online: 26 September 2022 (10:40:58 CEST)
A simple line of reasoning, based on the most fundamental concepts of thermodynamics, yields some intriguing results for a better understanding of the processes occurring in the observable Universe. Gravitational mass must be continuously generated within an expanding thermodynamic system for this system to remain closed. The Second Law is a direct consequence of this production of mass. Simple expressions for the entropy and temperature of the Universe were obtained and the results agree well with observable values. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the conservation laws within the Universe are independent of its energy density. Based on the solution for the quantum state of the Universe, it is conjectured that the Second Law is incomplete and must be complemented to a conservation law, which takes into account the growth of the amount of information within the Universe. Once the Second Law is complemented to a conservation law, the importance of mass generation within the Universe becomes well pronounced – not only gravitational effects play the role of an organising force, but also the amount of mass within the Universe defines both the amount of information within the Universe and the level of the Universe’s complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Innovation; and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 26 September 2022 (10:39:02 CEST)
In this article we have estimated the value of “Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship” in Europe. We use data from European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019. We use Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS, Pooled OLS, and Dynamic Panel. Our results show that “Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship” is positively associated, among others, to “Innovation Friendly Environment” and “Turnover Share Large Enterprises”, while it is negatively associated, among others, to “Sales Impacts” and “R&D Expenditure Business Sectors”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0392.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Laser induced forward transfer; high entropy alloys; micro-particles
Online: 26 September 2022 (10:32:29 CEST)
Controlled deposition of CoCrFeNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy (HEA) micro-particles was achieved using laser induced forward transfer (LIFT). Ultra-short laser pulses, 230 fs of 515 nm wavelength, were tightly focused into ∼ 2.4 μm focal spots on the ∼50 nm thick plasma-sputtered films of CoCrFeNiMo0.2. The HTA films were transferred onto glass substrates by magnetron sputtering in vacuum (10−8 atm) from the thermal spray coated substrates. The absorption coefficient of CoCrFeNiMo0.2 α ≈ 6 × 105 cm−1 was determined at 600 nm wavelength. The real and imaginary parts of refractive index (n + iκ) of HEA were determined from reflectance and transmittance using nano-films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0391.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: Keteleerioxylon changchunense sp. nov.; Keteleeria; geography; environment; Cretaceous
Online: 26 September 2022 (09:56:42 CEST)
The extant Keteleeria is endemic to East and Southeast Asia, while it is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere in Earth’s history. In this paper, we reported a novel wood fossil of Keteleerioxylon changchunense Shi, Sun, Meng et Yu sp. nov. collected from the middle member of Yingcheng Formation, Yingcheng Coal Mine, Changchun City, Jilin Province, Northeast China. The quantitative growth-ring analyses of K. changchunense indicate that it was evergreen and its leaf longevity was 1-3 years, which is consistent with the foliar retention of extant Keteleeria. Its high ring markedness index (RMI) indicates that the climate seasonality was pronounced during the early Albian in Songliao Basin, Northeast China. The fossil records of Keteleeria and closely related taxa indicate that this group might originate in Northeast China, spread and migrated northward during the Cretaceous, gradually decreased in the Cenozoic, and so far only survives in East and Southeast Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; asymptomatic; seroprevalence; Delta variant; Omicron variant; vaccination
Online: 26 September 2022 (09:41:01 CEST)
A significant proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Africa are identified as asymptomatic, facilitating the silent spread of the virus especially in populated urban cities. With the surge of the highly transmissible Omicron variant, the inclusion of asymptomatics in epidemiological surveys is key in estimating true infections and seroprevalence in the population. The aim of the study was to determine seroprevalence, active infection and circulating variants in Accra, the capital city of Ghana during the Omicron wave. The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 municipalities in December 2021. Naso-oropharyngeal swabs and serum samples were collected from 1027 individuals aged 5 years and above, for detection of infection by RT-qPCR and estimation of total antibodies using the WANTAI ELISA kit. Our results show 10% SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, with the Omicron and Delta variants accounting for 44.1% and 8.8% of infections, respectively. Omicron was most prevalent (48.9.%) among the 20–39-year-olds. Asymptomatic individuals accounted for 75.2% of infections. Seropositivity within the population was 86.8%, with the 60+ year group having significantly higher likelihood of exposure (OR 10.22: 95% CI: 3.51-29.73; p<0.001). This high seroprevalence appears to have been as a result of increased vaccination among this group (OR 2.7: 95% CI 1.78-4.09, p < 0.001). The high seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2 in the capital could be a good indication of herd immunity among the population and while the low infection rate supports the role of vaccination in reducing viral transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Yield; Fermentation; Sequential Pretreatment; Sorghum Straw
Online: 26 September 2022 (09:11:56 CEST)
The depletion and environmental problems associated with fossil fuels have encouraged us to look for alternative feedstock that do not compromise food security and the environment. Sorghum is a fast-growing crop that can be harvested twice a year and produces both food and straw that can be utilized in the production of bio-based fuels. In this study, the production of bioethanol and the effects of fermentation parameters on ethanol yield are presented. A sequential pretreatment method was employed, using dilute sulfuric acid (1%) at 125 °C in the first stage and dilute sodium hydroxide (1.25 %) at 90 °C in the second stage. The residues left after the sequential pretreatment stage were hydrolyzed using acid hydrolysis. The sugar concentration of the hydrolysates was determined using the phenol sulfuric acid method, and three hydrolysates having sugar levels of 30.42 g/L, 31.79 g/L, and 32.9875 g/L were selected for fermentation. The ethanol yield was determined after 72 hours of fermentation at 30 °C with varying inoculum sizes (5%, 10%, and 15%) and pH (4.5, 5, and 5.5). With a maximum ethanol yield of 0.617 mL/g (48.742%) produced at a sugar content of 32.9875 g/L, pH of 5, and inoculum size of 15%, statistical analysis showed that all three independent parameters affected ethanol yield. According to these findings, while raising sugar content, inoculum amount, and pH all initially result in higher ethanol yields, doing so further reduces yield. So, in order to increase ethanol yield, fermentation conditions must be carefully managed while producing ethanol from sequential acidic-alkaline pretreated sorghum straw. The strategy followed by using sequential acidic-alkaline pretreatment of sorghum straw provides prospects for efficient and effective production of biofuels from alternative feedstock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: spatial single-cell analysis; intratumor heterogeneity; kriging; spatial entropy; Was-serstein distance; cancer; RNA-seq
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:57:58 CEST)
Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is associated with therapeutic resistance and poor prognosis in cancer patients, and attributed to genetic, epigenetic, and microenvironmental factors. We developed a new computational platform, GATHER, for geostatistical modeling of single cell RNA-seq data to synthesize high-resolution and continuous gene expression landscapes of a given tumor sample. Such landscapes allow GATHER to map the enriched regions of pathways of interest in the tumor space and identify genes that have spatial differential expressions at locations representing specific phenotypic contexts using measures based on optimal transport. GATHER provides new applications of spatial entropy measures for quantification and objective characterization of ITH. It includes new tools for insightful visualization of spatial transcriptomic phenomena. We illustrate the capabilities of GATHER using real data from breast cancer tumor to study hallmarks of cancer in the phenotypic contexts defined by cancer associated fibroblasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: maritime autonomy; autonomous ship; safety; digital twin; deep reinforcement learning; collision avoidance; situational awareness
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:55:58 CEST)
The use of digital twins for the development of Autonomous Maritime Surface Vessels (AMSVs) has enormous potential to resolve the increasing need for water-based navigation and safety at the seas. Aiming at the problem of lack of broad and integrated digital twin implementations with live data along with the absence of a digital twin-driven framework for AMSV design and development, an application framework for the development of a fully autonomous vessel using an integrated digital twin in a 3D simulation environment has been presented. Our framework has four layers to ensure that the simulation and the real-world boat as well as the environment are as close as possible. Åboat, an experimental research platform for maritime automation and autonomous surface ship applications, equipped with two trolling electric motors, cameras, LiDARs, IMU and GPS has been used as the case study to provide a proof of concept. Åboat and its sensors, alongwith the environment have been replicated in a 3D simulation environment. Using the proposed application framework, we develop obstacle detection and path planning systems based on machine learning which leverage live data from a 3D simulation environment to mirror the complex dynamics of the real world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0386.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: micromobility; sustainable transport; electric vehicles; active travel; LEV; so-cio-technical analysis
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:51:42 CEST)
While micromobility has seen a significant rise of interest across policy, industry and academia, a detailed conceptualisation of it has so far been missing from the scientific literature. This paper develops a multi-dimensional conceptualisation of micromobility, in conjunction with a new socio-technical definition. To do so, it reviews related concepts; it analyses how the term micromobility has been used; and it critically engages with existing definitions most frequently cited in this literature. Building on these insights, we develop a multi-dimensional conceptualization of micromobility. Our definition of micromobility covers a wide range of mobility options that can typically be manoeuvred by one human without motor assistance, at least for short distances, and that are ‘micro’ in terms of energy demand, environmental impact, and use of road space, relative to automobility. According to our conceptualisation, micromobility modes comprise fully human powered, partially motor assisted and fully powered options. They typically do not exceed 25 kilometres per hour (or 45 for faster ones) and weigh (often significantly) less than 350 kilogram, while often providing some (public) health benefits. Trip lengths are typically less than 15 kilometres and daily distance travelled less than 80 kilometres. This new definition has relevance for future transport and mobility scholarship, as well as policy and evaluation. Advantages of a new and widely accepted definition and conceptualisation of micromobility could include more robust design standards, legislation, as well as evaluation metrics and methods, all leading to greater understanding of, and attention paid to, this form of mobility. This paper highlights the important role that micromobilities could play in moving beyond automobility, to create more sustainable and just mobility futures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0385.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: spectral imaging; metallurgy; infrared thermography; pyrometry; temperature measurement; flow rate
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:47:38 CEST)
Real-time closed-loop control of metallurgical processes is still in its infancy, mostly based on simple models and limited sensor data, challenged by extreme temperature, harsh process conditions. Contact-free thermal imaging-based measurement approaches thus appear to be particularly suitable for process monitoring. With the potential to generate vast amounts of accurate data in real-time, combined with artificial intelligence methods to enable real-time analysis and integration of expert knowledge, thermal spectral imaging is identified as a promising method offering more robust and accurate identification of key parameters, such as surface temperature, morphology, composition and flow rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0384.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: prebiotics; resistant starch; inulin; polydextrose; farinography; extensography
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:32:33 CEST)
The addition of prebiotics is one of the most important ways to improve the techno-functional properties of bread. In this study, the effects of resistant starch, polydextrose, and inulin on the wheat flour, dough, and bread properties were investigated. In farinography results, resistant starch significantly increased the development time (2:18) with a boosting effect, but polydextrose (1:48) and inulin (1:36) weakened the dough (P <0.05). Inulin, polydextrose, and resistant starch had the most effect on reducing water absorption (40, 43.2, and 48.9) respectively (P <0.05). According to extensography data, inulin had the best result in baking compared to other polysaccharides. In terms of baked breads, samples containing resistant starch had high moisture that could be due to starch gelatinization and moisture-retaining, which delays the staling process of bread. Inulin, polydextrose, and resistant starch prebiotic ingredients affected dough rheological properties and bread quality, and organoleptic characteristics, however, resistant starch was the best.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Obstructive Sleep Apnea; COVID-19; Hospitalization; Infection; Epidemiology
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:02:12 CEST)
Background: Medical comorbidities increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection. In some studies, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been identified as a comorbid condition that is associated with an increased prevalence of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, but few have investigated this association in a general population. Research Question: In a general population, is OSA associated with increased odds of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization and are these altered with COVID-19 vaccination? Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of a diverse sample of 15,057 U.S. adults Results: COVID-19 infection and hospitalization rates were 38.9% and 2.9% respectively. OSA or OSA symptoms were reported in 19.4%. In logistic regression models adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and comorbid medical conditions, OSA was positively associated with COVID-19 infection (aOR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.39-1.79) and COVID-19 hospitalization (aOR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.05). In fully adjusted models, boosted vaccination status was protective against both infection and hospitalization. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization, but not infection. Participants with untreated or symptomatic OSA were at greater risk for COVID-19 infection; those with untreated, but not symptomatic OSA were more likely to be hospitalized. Interpretation: In a general population sample, OSA is associated with a greater likelihood of having had a COVID-19 infection and a COVID-19 hospitalization with the greatest impact observed among persons experiencing OSA symptoms or who were untreated for their OSA. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0382.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: ZnO; sol gel; temperature; band gap; simulation
Online: 26 September 2022 (07:42:25 CEST)
ZnO was synthesized by Sol gel method using zinc nitrate as precursor at different calcination temperatures. Nucleation of ZnO crystallites and their growth with rise in temperature was observed. Exciton bands and lattice imperfections affected the absorption spectra. The decrease in band gap with temperature was due to the formation of defect energy levels. Phonon assisted non-radiative transitions caused broadening of the peaks. The possibility of tuning the band gap of ZnO by changing the temperature was explored. Simulation studies showed transition to single phase with rise in temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0381.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Composite Variable Structure PI; Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor; improved MRAS
Online: 26 September 2022 (07:36:04 CEST)
In the speed control system of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) without a speed sensor, the speed under the traditional PI control suffers from poor tracking performance and step response overshoot. This paper proposes a Compound Variable Structure PI (CVSPI) controller to improve the system control performance. It can choose whether to include an integral term according to the size of the system deviation to speed up the response. It also introduces a Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) speed observer in the controller to estimate the speed and adaptively adjust the size of the anti-integration saturation gain to improve the dynamic response following performance and immunity of the system. A feed-forward link is added for a given input differential to achieve an accurate answer to time-varying inputs. As the linear compensation matrix of the conventional MRAS is a unit matrix, the speed can only be accurately observed in a specific speed range. In this paper, a new linear compensation matrix is designed, and a new speed adaptive law is derived, allowing the improved MRAS to measure speed over a wide range accurately. Simulation results validate the excellent control performance of the CVSPI and the accuracy of the enhanced MRAS over a wide speed range.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0380.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: UAV Technology; Information Processing; Machine Learning; IR Technology; Covid-19; Multi-modal machine learning; Machine vision; Computer vision
Online: 26 September 2022 (05:46:03 CEST)
Tracking and early identification of suspected cases are essential to control and prevent potential COVID-19 outbreaks. One of the most popular techniques used to track this disease is the use of Infrared cameras to identify individuals with elevated body temperatures. However, they are limited by their inability to be implemented in open public settings such as public parks or even outdoor recreational centers. This limits their ability to effectively track possible COVID-19 patients as open public recreational places such as parks, concert venues and other public venues are hotspots for the spreading of the virus. Other technological solutions such as thermal scanners require an individual to perform the actual testing as they are not individual standalone technologies. This method of testing can potentially cause the transmission of the virus between the tester and the individual getting tested. As can be seen, an alternative solution is essential to solving this issue. In this study, we aim to present the system, design and potential scope of a non-invasive system that can diagnose and identify potential COVID-19 patients using thermal and optical images of the individual using drone technology. The proposed system (COVIDRONE) combines multi-modal machine intelligence, computer vision and real-time monitoring to enable scalable monitoring. The system will also involve the use of machine learning algorithms for better and more accurate diagnosis. We envisage that development of such technologies may help in developing technological solutions to combat infectious disease threats in the future pandemics.