Background and objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a disease of insulin deficiency or its inability of usage by the target tissues leading to impairment of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolisms. Resveratrol, having robust anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, has a high potential to treat or prevent the pathogenesis of diseases. This study was conducted to reveal the relationship between diabetes-induced oxidative stress and tissue inflammation with changes in main enzymatic antioxidants (cat, sod, gpx, and gst) and the components of the insulin signaling pathway (insulin Rβ, irs-1, pi3k, akt, mtor) in kidney tissues. Additionally, the effects of resveratrol on these parameters were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups; (1) control/vehicle; (2) control/20 mg/kg resveratrol; (3) diabetic/vehicle; (4) diabetic/20 mg/kg resveratrol. Gene and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes and insulin signaling elements were evaluated in renal tissues. Results: Downregulation of antioxidant enzymes’ gene expression in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats was demonstrated and this situation was devoted partially to the reduced gene expression of nfκb. Moreover, the components of renal insulin signaling elements were upregulated at both gene and protein expression levels in diabetic rats, and resveratrol treatment decreased this sensitization towards the control state. Conclusion: Resveratrol partially improved diabetes-induced renal oxidative stress and inflammation due to healing action on renal antioxidant enzymes and insulin signaling pathway components.