REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0174.v1
Subject: Clinical Psychology, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: apolipoprotein; suicide; biomarker; psychiatry; risk factor
Online: 9 August 2022 (05:10:32 CEST)
Every year around 800 000 people commit suicide, this represents one death every 40 seconds. In the search for possible biological biomarkers associated with suicide and/or psychiatric disorders, serum cholesterol levels have been extensively explored. Several studies have indicated that cholesterol and associated proteins, especially apolipoproteins (Apos), may play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and susceptibility of suicide. Here, we describe the current knowledge and findings in the relationship between apolipoproteins and suicide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0173.v1
Subject: Astronomy & Astrophysics, Physical Sciences Keywords: Dark matter; Weak interaction; Super gravity of baryonic matter; flat rotation speed; Hubble mass; Hubble radius
Online: 9 August 2022 (04:58:06 CEST)
In our recently published papers, considering Planck mass based light speed growing black hole universe and scaled Hawking’s black hole temperature formula, we have developed a simple procedure for estimating the current Hubble parameter and current cosmic mass. In addition to that, without considering galactic dark matter, starting from 10 km/sec to 500 km/sec, we have tried to fit the observed galactic flat rotation speeds with a concept of super gravity of galactic baryonic mass. To estimate the equivalent mass of currently hypothecated galactic dark matter, we have introduced a timely increasing cosmological reference mass unit. Its current magnitude seems to be around 200 million solar masses. In this paper, considering 200 million solar masses as a characteristic representation of cosmic weak interaction mass unit, we have developed a simple formula for its estimation. We would like to appeal that, weak interaction boosts the gravity of galaxies in proportion with their virtual dark mass as (galactic baryonic mass)3/2 / (200 million solar masses)1/2. With further study- dark matter existence and physical properties can be understood in a theoretical approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0172.v1
Subject: Business And Administrative Sciences, Social Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Occupational Health; Telecommuting; Masking; Physical Distancing
Online: 9 August 2022 (04:27:48 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a considerable expansion in the way work settings are structured with a continuum emerging between working fully in-person and from home. The pandemic has also exacerbated many risk factors for poor mental health in the workplace, especially in public-facing jobs. Therefore, we sought to test the potential relationship between work setting and self-rated mental health. Methods: We modeled the association of work setting (only working from home, only in-person, hybrid) on self-rated mental health (Excellent/Very Good/Good vs. Fair/Poor) in an online survey of Canadian workers during the 3rd wave of COVID-19. Mediating effects of vaccination, masking, and distancing were explored due to the potential effect of COVID-19 related worries on mental health among those working in-person. Results: Among 1,576 workers, most reported hybrid work (77.2%). Most also reported good self-rated mental health (80.7%). Exclusive work from home (aOR: 2.79, 95%CI:1.90,4.07) and exclusive in-person work (aOR: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.83,4.26) were associated with poorer self-rated mental health than hybrid work. Vaccine status mediated only a small proportion of this relationship (7%), while masking and physical distancing were not mediators. Conclusion: Hybrid work arrangements were associated with positive self-rated mental health. Compliance to vaccination, masking, and distancing did not meaningfully mediate this relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0171.v1
Subject: Pharmacology & Toxicology, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: combination; antimicrobial resistance; selection index; collateral sensitivity; mutant prevention concentration; minimal inhibitory concentration; fractional inhibitory concentration index; stress factor
Online: 9 August 2022 (04:19:53 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been a serious threat to human health, and combination therapy is proved to be an economic and effective strategy to fight the resistance. However, the abuse of drug combinations would conversely accelerate the spread of AMR. To guide the practice, some regularity conclusions had been drawn in our previous work. Based on those experimental data, here the power function (y=axb, a>0) correlation between the mutant selection index (SI) (y) of one agent and the ratio value (x) of two agents in a drug combination was established, and two rules a1 × MIC1 = a2 × MIC2 and b1 + b2 = -1 were discovered from both equations of y=a1xb1 and y=a2xb2 for two agents in drug combinations. Simultaneously, it was found that one agent with larger MPC alone for drug combinations would present a larger |b| and show greater potency for narrowing itself MSW and preventing the resistance. Another, a new concept as mutation-preventing selection index (MPSI) was proposed and used for evaluating the mutation-preventing potency difference of two agents in drug combinations, and the positive correlation between the MPSI and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) or minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was subsequently established. Inspired by this, the significantly positive correlation, contrary to previous reports, between the MIC and the corresponding MPC of antimicrobial agents against pathogenic bacteria was established using one hundred and eighty-one of data pairs reported. These above together indicate that the MPCs in alone and combination are very important indexes for drug combinations to predict the mutation-preventing effects and the trajectories of collateral sensitivity, and the MPC of an agent can be roughly calculated from its corresponding MIC. Subsequently, this was further verified and improved by the antibiotic exposure to forty-three groups designed as different drug concentrations and various proportions. Based on these, the diagram of the mutation-preventing effects and the resistant trajectories of drug combinations with different concentrations and ratio of two agents was presented, and the C/MPC for the agent with larger proportion in drug combinations is the key to judge whether the resistance and the collateral sensitivity occur to two agents. Furthermore, the stress factors 1/MPC alone of two agents, together with their SI in combination, are the key to predict the mutation-preventing effects, and control the trajectories of collateral sensitivity. Combined the discussion and analyses for the above results and previous work, a preliminary scheme for antimicrobial combinations preventing the AMR was further proposed for subsequent improvement research and clinic popularization. Moreover, some other proposals and regularity conclusions related to preventing the AMR, involving fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), mutant selection index (SI), and pharmacokinetic parameters (t1/2, AUC24/MPC, Cmax/MPC, and f %T > MPC, etc.), were analyzed and discussed, and finally some similar conclusions were speculated for triple or multiple drug combinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0170.v1
Subject: Applied Mathematics, Mathematics & Computer Science Keywords: neuron; astrocyte; network; short-term memory; spatial frequency; computational biology
Online: 9 August 2022 (04:04:31 CEST)
Working memory refers to the capability of the nervous system to selectively retain short-term memories in an active state. The long-standing viewpoint is that neurons play an indispensable role and working memory is encoded by synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, some recent studies have shown that calcium signaling assists the memory processes and the working memory might be affected by the astrocyte density. Over the last few decades, growing evidence has also revealed that astrocytes exhibit diverse coverage of synapses which are considered to participate in neuronal activities. However, very little effort has yet been made to attempt to shed light on the potential correlations between these observations. Hence, in this article we will leverage a computational neuron-astrocyte model to study the short-term memory performance subject to various astrocytic coverage and we will demonstrate that the short-term memory is susceptible to this factor. Our model may also provide plausible hypotheses for the various sizes of calcium events as they are reckoned to be correlated with the astrocytic coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0169.v1
Subject: Other, Life Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; social inequalities; deprivation index; incidence rate; restrictive public health measures; local spread; GEE model
Online: 9 August 2022 (04:02:12 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal association between socio-economic deprivation and the incidence of COVID-19 and how this association changes through the seasons and due to the existence of restrictive public health measures. A retrospective observational study was conducted among COVID-19 cases that occurred in the Apulia region from 29 February 2020 to 31 December 2021, dividing the period into four phases with different levels of restrictions. A generalized estimating equations model was applied to test the independent effect of deprivation on the incidence rate of COVID-19, taking into account age, sex, and regional incidence rate as possible confounding effects and covariates such as season and levels of restrictions as possible modifying effects. The highest incidence rate was in areas with a Very High deprivation Index (DI) in winter (107.2 for 100,000 ab. ± 7.5), while in autumn, the highest Rate Ratio (RR) was estimated between Very High vs. Low DI (3.83, p<.001). During total lockdown, no RR between areas with different levels of DI was significant, while during soft lockdown, areas with Very High DI were more at risk than all other areas. The effects of social inequalities on incidence rate of COVID-19 change in as-sociation with the seasons and restrictions on public health. Disadvantaged areas showed a higher incidence rate of COVID-19 in the cold seasons and in the phases of soft lockdown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0168.v1
Subject: Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy, Biology Keywords: drought; institutions; smallholder farmers; water security
Online: 9 August 2022 (03:49:28 CEST)
Disasters such as the 2015-2018 drought in South Africa usually negatively impact agricultural water, especially in smallholder farming systems. This study assessed the availability of irrigation water, performance of irrigation infrastructure, and water governance systems in Genadendal, Western Cape, with a focus on smallholder farmers. Data for streamflow, dam levels, and rainfall were acquired from water institutions and analysed using Microsoft Excel. The performance of the infrastructure and water governance were assessed based on the perceptions of smallholder farmers and key informants. A questionnaire was administered to eight smallholder farmers, followed by a focus group discussion with 15 smallholder farmers. Interviews were conducted with eight key informants who worked in water-related institutions. Qualitative data from the interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. The study showed adequate agricultural water resources during the 2015-2018 drought period for the smallholder farmers who relied on water from dams. However, smallholder farmers who relied on the Riviersonderend River experienced severe water shortages during the same period. The findings also showed that there was poor performance of irrigation water infrastructure due to inadequate maintenance. Lack of coordination among institutions, insufficient funding, political interference, fragmentation of roles and responsibilities, lack of human resources, and farmers’ lack of participation and commitment in water resources management contributed to the dysfunctionality of irrigation water governance systems, leading to water insecurity. This study recommends adequate funding for the operation and maintenance of infrastructure. Furthermore, water institutions need to support smallholder farmers with training skills in agricultural water management and infrastructure maintenance. Further studies are recommended to quantify the water lost due to the poor performance of water infrastructure and to develop effective water governance in Genadendal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0167.v1
Subject: Electrochemistry, Chemistry Keywords: ring rotating disk electrode (RRDE); voltametric analysis; flow battery, bromide oxidation)
Online: 9 August 2022 (03:32:02 CEST)
We measured the ring collection coefficient of bromide anion oxidation products in a neutral and slightly alkaline medium on a rotating ring-disk electrode (glassy carbon disk, platinum ring) varying the following parameters: disk electrode rotation velocity, sodium bromide concentration, pH of the medium (in the range of 6 – 12), anode current on the disk and the electroreduction potential of the bromide anion oxidation products on the ring. The data obtained is presented via dependences of the cathode ring current to the disk current ratio vs the ring electrode potential. The analysis of the results was carried out by comparing the experimental polarization curves of the ring electrode with the data of cyclic voltammetry in model solutions to determine the electrical activities of various bromine compounds in positive oxidation states. We claim that RRDE method could be used to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on the electrooxidation of bromide ion in neutral and alkaline solutions. For the most effective regeneration of the spent oxidizer the values of pH > 10 and moderate concentrations of NaBr should be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0166.v1
Subject: Genetics, Life Sciences Keywords: Epigenetics; Toxicant exposure; Maternal stress; Parental smoking; Offspring health
Online: 9 August 2022 (03:27:22 CEST)
Background: The trends in the role of the germline in epigenetic transgenerational inheritance starts with the environmental factors acting on the first generation of a gestating mother. These factors influence the developing second-generation fetus by altering gonadal development, thereby reprogramming the primordial germ cell DNA methylation and leading to consequences that would be seen along generations. Objective: Despite these epigenetic factors now surfacing, the few available studies are on animal-based experiments and to make follow up on human intergenerational trials might take decades. To this response, this study aimed to determine the influence of parental energy, toxicant exposure, age and nutrient restriction on the early life of offspring growth in Gambia. Method: The study was on population-based observational study on parental energy influence, toxicant exposure, age, and nutrient restriction on offspring growth in Gambia. Results: This study showed that parents who worked in industrial areas were more likely to have offspring with poor psychosocial skills. In addition, mothers who are exposed to oxidative stress and high temperature are more likely to have offspring with poor psychosocial skills. Mothers who consumed a high protein diet were almost three more likely to have infants with good psychosocial skills in their offspring. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between maternal stress during pregnancy and psychosocial skills of offspring. Conclusion: This study was able ascertain if maternal diet during gestation, toxicant exposure, maternal stress and parental smoking habits have influence on the early life of offspring. While the study is recommending a large sample size study to eliminate selection bias, there should be an increased level of awareness of mothers on their offspring's health and their husbands' lifestyles that might influence the adulthood health of offspring.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0165.v1
Subject: Clinical Neurology, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: neuralgia; earache; facial pain; neuropathic pain; geniculate neuralgia; nervus intermedius; otalgia; gabapentin
Online: 9 August 2022 (03:20:29 CEST)
(1) Background: Painful nervus intermedius neuropathy (e.g., geniculate neuralgia) involves continuous or near-continuous pain affecting the distribution of the intermedius nerve(s). The diagnosis of this entity is challenging, particularly when the clinical and demographic features do not resemble the typical presentation of this condition. To the best of our knowledge, only three case reports have described the occurrence of nervus intermedius neuropathy in young patients. (2) Case Description: A 13-year-old female referred to the Orofacial Pain clinic with a complaint of pain located deep in the right ear and mastoid area. The pain was described as a constant throbbing and dull, with an intensity of 7/10 on numerical rating scale, characterized by superimposed brief paroxysms of severe sharp pain. The past treatments included ineffective pharmacological and irreversible surgical approaches. After a comprehensive evaluation, a diagnosis of idiopathic painful nervus intermedius neuropathy was given, which was successfully managed with the use of gabapentin. (3) Conclusions and Practical Implications: The diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain affecting the nervus intermedius can be challenging due to the complex nature of the sensory innervation of the ear. The diagnosis can be even more challenging in cases of atypical clinical and demographic presentations, which in turn may result in unsuccessful, unnecessary, and irreversible treatments. Multidisciplinary teams and constant knowledge update are fundamental to provide good quality of care to our patients and to not overlook any relevant signs or symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0164.v1
Subject: Astronomy & Astrophysics, Physical Sciences Keywords: magnetic monopole; inflation, scalar field; Grand Unification theories
Online: 9 August 2022 (03:14:03 CEST)
Inflationary model provides a conceptual explanation of the horizon problem, the flatness problem and may also suppress the over abundant magnetic monopoles predicted by Grand Unified Theories. Although various inflationary models have been proposed since 1981, difficulties like fine tuning is not only unsolved but also becomes severer in confrontation with data of Planck Satellite. This paper proposes an alternative model of inflation: the spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition at early universe is only responsible for the production of magnetic monopoles expected by Grand Unified Theories; it is the subsequent energy release of monopole annihilation that drives the inflation. As a result, the early universe underwent a free expansion with a heat source originating in the annihilation, which expects a smooth, plateau-like potential consistent with the observational data. Beside interpreting a number of long standing inflationary problems, the new scenario predicts a significant increase of entropy during the inflation, and tends to produce large scale structures exceed scale of 300 million light-years correlated with a CMB smoothen and flatten by a simple dynamical mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0163.v1
Subject: Urology, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: STAT3; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; upper tract urothelial carcinoma; renal cell carcinoma; penile cancer; testicular cancer
Online: 8 August 2022 (15:09:21 CEST)
Nowadays molecular research is essential for the better understanding of tumor cells pathophysiology. The increasing number of neoplasms is taken under ‘the molecular magnifying glass’ therefore it is possible to discover complex relationships between cytophysiology and tumor cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) belongs to the family of latent cytoplasmic transcription factors called STATs which comprises seven members: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B, STAT6. Those proteins play important role in cytokine-activated gene expression by transducing signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Abnormal prolonged activation results in tumorigenesis, metastasis, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Inhibition of this transcription factor inhibits previously mentioned effects in cancer cells whereas normal cells are not affected. Hence STAT3 might be a viable target for cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0162.v1
Subject: Finance, Social Sciences Keywords: COVID-19, Cryptocurrency Return, Risk, Transaction Volume
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:48:44 CEST)
Cryptocurrencies are now the most popular investment instruments among millenials. Crypto offers great returns in a short period of time. Prior to COVID-19, Crypto experienced significant price fluctuations accompanied by an increase in the number of high transaction volumes. This situation was disrupted by the presence of the COVID-19 which made the world economy devastated, marked by the decline of stock prices in the world, especially in Indonesia. A paired test was conducted in this study to compare the state of Crypto before and during COVID-19 with the variables of Risk, Transaction Volume, Return, and Sharpe Performance. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the variables of Transaction Volume and Return. However, there was no significant difference in the Risk and Sharpe performance before and during COVID-19. This study shows that despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the enthusiasm of investors who transact crypto assets is not affected and they still get returns in accordance with the investments made. The high risk will be followed by a high standard deviation, so that the Sharpe Performance is small. Cryptocurrencies still have many gaps to research, such as regulation, so that many countries have not legalized Crypto transactions. If there is no regulation for Crypto, it is certain that an increase in cybercrime harms crypto investors and threatens global financial stability. Nevertheles, with or without COVID-19, investment transactions gain and lose based on confidence in the limited market. Therefore, the success of confidence fluctuations in crypto encourages the emergence of alternative coins created by investors to conduct an Initial Coin Offering (ICO).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0161.v1
Subject: Clinical Neurology, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: Crocin; Multiple scleroses; Cognition; BDNF; NGF; Demyelination
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:46:09 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Crocin on brain neuroterophins, cognition, sensory and motor dysfunction and compare to fingolimod effects in experimental model of demyelination with Ethidium Bromide EB in female Wistar rats. Methods: Animals were assigned in to 8 groups; Sham, Sham operated (ShOp), EAE, crocin treated (Cr5,10,20 mg/kg), Vehicle, Fingolompd (Fing) and fingolimod + crocin (Cr+Fing). Demyelination was induced by single dose injection of 10 μl of EB 0.1% into the fourth ventricle of the brain. Crocin and fingolimod were applied for 21 days, daily, oral gavage. BDNF, NGF1, nerve conduction velocities, tail flake latency, balance and behavioral variables were sampled and analyzed by paired t-test and ANOVA test with repeated post hoc measurements. Results: The results showed that crocin improves all studied factors, but remarkable imrovments were observed in dosage of 10 mg/kg. Crocin (10mg/kg) and fingolimod (1mg/kg) significantly improved cognition variables in open field test, sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity, tail flick latency and clinical signs (p<005). In addition, applying of crocin co-administered with fingolimod led to significant increases in all assessed factors, greater than crocin or fingolimod intervention alone (α≤0.001). Conclusion: Based on the current findings, crocin can improve the level of brain neurotrophins, exploratory behavior and nerve conduction after demyelination as close as fingolimod results. So, crocins can be considered as a neuro supportive agent in the management of degenerative diseases maybe similar to fingolimod mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0160.v1
Subject: Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Engineering Keywords: fault injection; functional safety; automotive applications; fault tolerance
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:41:10 CEST)
A common requirement of embedded software in charge of safety tasks is to guarantee the identification of those Random Hardware Failures (RHFs) that can affect digital components. RHFs are unavoidable. For this reason, functional safety standards, like the ISO 26262 devoted to automotive applications, require embedded software designs able to detect and eventually mitigate them. For this purpose, various software-based error detection techniques have been proposed over the years, focusing mainly on detecting Control Flow Errors. Many Control Flow Checking (CFC) algorithms have been proposed to accomplish this task. However, applying these approaches can be difficult because their respective literature gives little guidance on the their practical implementation in high-level programming languages, and they have to be implemented in low-level code, e.g., assembly. Moreover, the current trend in the automotive industry is to adopt the so-called Model-Based Software Design approach, where an executable algorithm model is automatically translated into C or C++ source code. This paper presents two novelties: firstly, the compliance of the experimental data on the capabilities of Control Flow Checking (CFC) algorithms with the ISO 26262 automotive functional safety standard; Secondly, by the implementation of the CFC algorithm in the application behavioral model is automatically translated. There is no need to modify the code generator. The assessment was performed using a novel fault injection environment targeting a RISC-V (RV32I) microcontroller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0159.v1
Subject: Endocrinology & Metabolomics, Life Sciences Keywords: metabolomics; NMR; PEMT; knockout; aging; mice; liver; intestine; white/brown adipose tissue
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:36:04 CEST)
Phospholipid metabolism, including phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis, is crucial for various biological functions and is associated to longevity. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) is a protein that catalyzes the biosynthesis of PC, the levels of which change in various organs such as brain and kidney during aging. However, the role of PEMT for systemic PC supply is not fully understood. To address how PEMT affects aging-associated energy metabolism in tissues responsible for nutrient absorption, lipid storage and energy consumption, we employed NMR-based metabolomics to study liver, plasma, intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), brown/white adipose tissues (BAT, WAT), and skeletal muscle of young (9–10 weeks) and old (96–104 weeks) wild-type (WT) and PEMT knockout (KO) mice. We found that the effect of PEMT-knockout was tissue-specific and age-dependent. Deficiency of PEMT affected the metabolome of all tissues examined, among which the metabolome of BAT from both young and aged KO mice was dramatically changed in comparison to WT mice, whereas the metabolome of jejunum was only slightly affected. As for aging, the absence of PEMT increased the divergence of metabolome during aging of liver, WAT, duodenum and ileum and decreased the impact on skeletal muscle. Overall, our results suggest that PEMT plays a previously unexplored critical role in both aging and energy metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0158.v1
Subject: Other, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: dauricine; STAT5; NF-κB; Inflammation; Ischemia-reperfusion injury
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:18:00 CEST)
Inflammatory reaction after ischemia-reperfusion contributes significantly to prognosis, and microglia activation is the main resource of inflammation in nervous system. STAT5 is proving to be a highly effective anti-inflammatory therapy with great potential, and inhibition of STAT5 has demonstrated significant anti-inflammation and therapeutic effects, but rarely focus on mechanism of neuroinflammation and brain injury from ischemia-reperfusion. It is the first time to found that the anti-inflammation of dauricine is mainly through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, might act as a STAT5 inhibitor. Dauricine suppressed the inflammation cytokines Eotaxin, KC, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12β, IL-17α, and also inhibited the microglia activation. STAT5b mutant at Tyr-699 reversed the protective effect of dauricine on oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion injury of neurons, and reactivated the suppression of dauricine on P-NF-κB of microglia. These results suggest that dauricine might suppress the neuroinflammation and protect the neuron from the injury of post-ischemia-reperfusion via mediating the microglia activation through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, and ss a potential therapeutic target for neuroinflammation, STAT5 needs to be raised concern in ischemic stroke.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0157.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: neural; circuit; synthetic; biology; brain; neuron; psychiatry; neurology; development; connectome; synapse; engineering
Online: 8 August 2022 (11:12:57 CEST)
Recent biotechnological innovations make feasible the new paradigm of creating biological neural circuits de novo. With advances in protein, cell and tissue engineering techniques, as well as cellular reprogramming methods, we are entering an era where the construction of neural circuits can open completely new ways for studying nervous systems and for treating nervous system disorders. I explore here three technologies, namely cellular engraftment, neuronal reprogramming and transsynaptic molecule engineering, and delineate how they are being used in a variety of basic research and translational medicine contexts. In basic neuroscience, neural circuit construction methods are enabling ways to study causality in neural development (e.g. neural precursor differentiation and migration) and circuit function (e.g. excitation/inhibition balance, neural population dynamics). In translational neuroscience, they are providing opportunities for the targeted correction of circuit malfunction in brain disorders, both psychiatric (e.g. schizophrenia) and neurological (e.g. Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as epilepsy). I discuss the challenges that these methods currently face, such as targeting specificity and cell survival, and outline future paths and opportunities to realize the full potential of technologies for creating new biological neural circuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Hydrostatic bearings; Journal bearings; Static load characteristics; Measurements; Predictions
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:57:53 CEST)
Hydrostatic bearings for liquid rocket engine turbopumps provide distinctive advantages including high load capacity even with low viscosity cryogenic fluid and extending a life span by minimizing friction and wear between rotor and bearing surfaces. Application of hydrostatic bearings into turbopumps demands reliable test data base with well-quantified operating parameters and experimentally validated accurate performance predictive tools. The present paper shows the comprehensive experimental data and validation of predicted static load characteristics of hydrostatic journal bearings lubricated with air, water, and liquid nitrogen. Extensive experiments for static load characteristics of hydrostatic bearings are conducted using a turbopump rotor-bearing system simulator while increasing supply pressure (Ps) into the test bearings. The test results demonstrate notable effects of the test fluids and their temperatures, as well as Ps, on the bearing performance. In general, the measured bearing flow rate, rotor displacement, and stiffness of the test bearings steadily increase with Ps. The static load bearing characteristics predictions considering flow turbulence and compressibility matched well with the experimental results. The work with an independent test data and engineering computational programs will further the implementation of hydrostatic bearings in high performance turbopump shaft systems with improved efficiency and enhanced reusability of liquid rocket engine sub-systems.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0155.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Antrograde Amnesia; repetitive questioning; Transient global amnesia
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:55:46 CEST)
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is an uncommon clinical syndrome characterized by a loss of short-term memory and disorientation that resolves in twenty-four hours. The etiology is unknown and the diagnosis is made by exclusion of other possible etiologies that may cause similar patterns and the reversibility of the condition in less than 24 hours. Here we report a 60-year-old male presented with sudden onset of disorientation and short-term memory loss early in the morning while at home and started to ask his whereabouts and what happened. He had no history of significant medical or psychiatric disease. There was no history of previous similar episodes. He had no recent history of sleep problems, head trauma, substance abuse, or loss of consciousness. He had no history of seizure disorder, or migraine. A neurologic examination revealed a normal wakefulness state with mild disorientation, and short-term memory impairment. He had score of 18/30 on mini-mental state examination (which later returned to normal baseline in 24 hours). Extensive lab investigations did not show any abnormal findings. Brain MRI did not show any acute cerebral pathology. The EEG was negative for any abnormal cerebral activity. His memory improved and returned to normal baseline over the course of a 20-hour from the onset. After exclusion of potential causes and the patient returned to normal state of memory, the diagnosis of transient global amnesia was made. At the follow-up visit, the patient was in a state of normal function without a recurrence of memory impairment. Here we presented this interesting case of transient global amnesia. TGA is diagnosis of exclusion and important to keep in mind when evaluating a patient with acute onset of short-term memory impairment, especially when etiological investigation revealed no potential cause.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Genome selection; Rice breeding; Genetic analysis; Omics assisted markers; Nutritional quality; Genomics and pangenomics; Biofortification
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:53:16 CEST)
The primary considerations while producing rice (Oryza sativa L.) include improving its nutritional quality and production. To tackle widespread hunger globally, better nutritional, high-yielding rice cultivars need to be developed. The conventional ways are to increase the production of rice and add balanced nutrients in the daily diet to fulfill the need of yield and nutrient quality. This article focuses on nutritional strategies for rice and illustrates the availability of omics technologies. Current advancements providing many methodologies and approaches for exploring genetic resources and for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in trait formation have been highlighted. Studying the genetic influences of various characteristics has been proven to expedite crop breeding processes. In this perspective, genome-wide association research, genome selection (GS), and QTL mapping are all genetic analysis that helps in increasing the nutritional content of rice. Implementation of several omic techniques are effective approaches to enhance and regulate the nutritional quality of rice cultivars. Advancements in different types of omics including genomics and pangenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics, and proteomics are also relevant to rice development initiatives. This review article compiles genes, locus, mutants and all omic approaches for rice enhancement. This knowledge will be very useful for now and for the future regarding rice studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0153.v1
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:50:42 CEST)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the drying kinetics of the mass of jambu leaves and mass of jambu leaves in foam mat at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70 °C and thickness of 1.0 cm). The physicochemical characterization of the materials was performed before and after drying. Twelve different drying models were fitted to the drying kinetics data and the thermodynamic properties were calculated. The physicochemical parameters for the mass of leaves and foam after drying were moisture content from 2 to 7%, ash from 13 to 17%, protein content from 22 to 30%, lipids from 0.6 to 4% and total titratable acidity from 0.20 to 0.28% of tartaric acid. Wang & Singh and Midilli models were recommended for describing the drying kinetics. The use of foam mat promoted higher values of effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy and lower values of enthalpy and entropy, thus enhancing the reduction of drying time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0152.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Desmin; Myopathy; Cardiomyopathy; Intermediate Filaments; Cytoskeleton; Myofibrillar Myopathy (MFM); Desminopathy; Desmosomes; Protein Aggregation.
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:48:45 CEST)
Desmin is the major intermediate filament protein of all three muscle cell types and connects different cell organelles and multi-protein complexes like the cardiac desmosomes. Several pathogenic mutations in the DES gene cause different skeletal and cardiac myopathies. However, the significance of the majority of DES missense variants is currently unknown since functional data are lacking. To determine whether desmin missense mutations within the highly conserved 1A coil domain cause a filament assembly defect, we generated a set of variants with unknown significance and analyzed systematically the filament assembly in transfected SW13 and H9c2 cells using confocal microscopy. We found that mutations in the N-terminal part of the 1A coil domain affect the filament assembly leading to the cytoplasmic desmin aggregation. In contrast, mutant desmin in the C-terminal part of the 1A coil domain form filamentous structures comparable to wild-type desmin. Our findings suggest that the N-terminal part of the 1A coil domain is a hot spot for pathogenic desmin mutations, which affect the desmin filament assembly leading in consequence to skeletal and/or cardiac myopathies. This study may have relevance for the genetic counselling of patients carrying variants in the 1A coil domain of the DES gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0150.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: black pepper; Bacillus veleznesis; root-knot nematodes; antinematodes compounds; organic wastes; microbial fermentation; thymine; hexahydropyrrolo [1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:30:28 CEST)
Bacillus veleznesis RB.EK7 was recently found as a potent rhizobacterial strain for effective management of black pepper root-knot nematodes. This work aimed to produce, purify, and elucidate the chemical structures of antinematode compounds (ANCs). Concerning cost-effectiveness and environmental issues, this study used organic wastes for the bioproduction of ANCs. Among various substrates, shrimp shells powder was the most suitable carbon/nitrogen source to produce ANCs. The fermentation process for enhancement of antinematode activity was investigated. The targeting ANCs were purified from the fermented culture broth, and their structures were elucidated. Two active compounds were thymine (1) and hexahydropyrrolo [1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione (2). Notably, for the first time, these purified compounds showed potential and moderate anti- J2 nematodes and anti-eggs hatching, respectively. The docking study results indicated that the potent antinematode effect of these compounds may be possibly due to the inhibition of the targeting enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The data of this work suggest that organic waste SSP can be potentially reused for the production of thymine and hexahydropyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione with promising use for the management of black pepper nematodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0149.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Honeyeater; foraging behaviour; diversity; human activity; avifauna
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:28:15 CEST)
Forests are increasingly becoming fragmented and declining due to natural causes and human-induced activities. The latter creates an imbalance which put the survival of vulnerable species such as those of avifauna at risk. Honeyeaters are group of birds common in Fiji, with certain species strictly confined to specific habitats. This study is an attempt to compare the abundance and foraging behaviours of three sympatric honeyeaters namely Kikau wattled honeyeater, Orange-breasted myzomela and Giant honeyeater at two contradicted sites (USP campus and Colo-i-Suva Forest Reserve). The survey was carried out using point count method along three different transect routes of approximately 2 Km on each study sites . A higher species diversity and abundance was observed in Colo-i-Suva Forest Reserve than in USP campus. Kikau wattled honeyeater are more populated at USP campus due to adequate nectar-producing plants. Whereas both Orange-breasted myzomela (highly adaptable bird species) and Giant honeyeater (forest specifics) are frequent in Colo-i-Suva Forest Reserve. All exhibited a wider range of foraging techniques across forest vertical strata and plant species, except for Giant honeyeater (not observed). The statistical analysis showed that there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in abundance as well as between the number of honeyeater species in both sites across the forest vertical strata. However, there is no significant difference in the foraging behaviour and the number of honeyeaters found foraging on diverse plant species (p > 0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0148.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Chinese smartphone brands; Decision trees; e-stores subscribers; consumer learning
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:24:54 CEST)
Introduction. Until now, the impact of learning variables on consumers' choices concerning Chinese product brands in the international online shopping framework remains unknown. Accordingly, this study aims to examine the effect of those learning variables on global consumers' choices of Chinese product brands. Method. A total of 44,704 transactions related to the buying process have been collected from a programming language and the Octopus Software within a Chinese International Online Shopping platform. Analysis. The 44,704 transactions have been analyzed through a Decision Tree. Results. The study points out that the number of e-retailers' subscribers reinforces the international consumers' trust online. At the same time, the pricing levels and quantity of product availability are used by global online consumers to assess the originality of Chinese product brands. Conclusions. First, this study extends the existing literature on consumer learning by going beyond the learning variables considered. Second, the study boosts consumer learning literature by elucidating the most significant learning variables guiding international online consumers' choices and purchases. The application of the results will enable brands and e-retailers to understand (1) the stages of the international online consumers' choice; (2) the buying strategies of global consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: endometrial cancer; ultrasound; lymph nodes; staging; metastases; biomarkers; model; COVID-19
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:24:17 CEST)
Background: Myometrial invasion (MI) is a parameter currently used in transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in endometrial cancer (EC) to determine local staging, however, without molecular diagnostics, it is insufficient for selection of high-risk cases, i.e., those with a high risk of lymph node metastases (LNM). Methods: One hundred sixteen consecutive EC patients, who had received 2D transvaginal ultrasound examinations in their preoperative workup and final histopathology results as a reference standard, were included in this prospective study. Univariate and multivariate logistic models of analyzed TVS biomarkers (tumor [T] size, T area [AREA], T volume [SPE-VOL], MI, T-free distance to serosa [TFD], endo-myometrial irregularity, [EMIR], cervical stromal involvement, CSI) were evaluated to assess the relative accuracy of the possible LNM predictors. To avoid a potential bias in assuming linear relations between LNM and continuous predictors, spline functions were applied. Calculations were made in R with the use of libraries splines, glmulti, and pROC. Results: LNM was found in 20 out of 116 (17%) patients. In univariate analysis, only uMI, EMIR, uCSI and uTFD were significant predictors of LNM. Accuracy was 0.707 (AUC 0.684, 95% CI 0.568-0.801) for uMI (p<0.01), 0.672 (AUC 0.664, 95% CI 0.547-0.781) for EMIR (p<0.01), 0.776 (AUC 0.647, 95% CI 0.529-0.765) for uCSI (p<0.01), and 0.638 (AUC 0.683, 95% CI 0.563-0.803) for uTFD (p<0.05). The cut-off value for uTFD was 5.2 mm. However, AREA and VOL revealed significant relation by non-linear analysis as well. Among all possible multivariate models, the one comprising interactions of splines of uTFD with uMI and splines of SPE-VOL with uCSI showed most usefulness. Accuracy was 0.802 (AUC 0.791, 95% CI 0.673-0.91) Conclusions: A combination of uTFD for patients with uMI>50%, and SPE-VOL for patients with uCSI, allows for the most accurate prediction of LNM in EC, rather than uMI alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0146.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: International Online Shopping; Countries' Level of Economic Development; International Online Consumers; Chinese mobile brands
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:23:07 CEST)
Until now, the literature on Chinese International Online Shopping (CIOS) (B2C export from China) mainly concentrated on the potential income that it constitutes for Chinese international trade. However, regarding International Online Consumers' (IOCs) purchase behaviors, research does not provide insight into the impact of Countries' Level of Economic Development (CLED) on the IOCs' preferences and choices about Chinese brands. Based on 9971 purchases about Chinese mobile phone brands, countries' macroeconomic data, and a multinomial logistics model (MLM), we examined IOCs' preferences and choices about Chinese brands. The result shows that the CLED influences IOCs' preferences and choices. Consequently, accounting of CLED in consumers’ preferences and choices introduces a new dimension in understanding IOCs' behaviors and attitudes towards Chinese mobile phone brands. This work contributes to Chinese brands' globalization research from the perspective of CLED. Such a model can be used to guide e-retailers and brand managers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Leishmania; co-infections; mixed infections; co-culture; hybrid; intercellular communication
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:20:49 CEST)
Leishmania parasites present astonishing adaptative abilities that represent a matter of life or death within disparate environments during the heteroxenous parasite life cycle. From an evolutionary perspective, organisms develop methods of overcoming such challenges. Strategies that extend beyond the genetic diversity have been discussed and include variability between parasite cells during the infections of their hosts. The occurrence of Leishmania subpopulation fluctuations with variable structural genomic contents demonstrates that a single strain might shelter the variability required to overcome inconsistent environments. Such intrastrain variability provides parasites with an extraordinary ability to adapt and thus survive and propagate. However, different perspectives on this evolution have been proposed. Strains or species living in the same environment can cooperate but also compete. These interactions might increase the replication rate of some parasites but cause the loss of more aggressive competitors for others. Adaptive responses to intra- and interspecific competition can evolve as a fixed strategy (replication is adapted to the average genetic complexity of infections) or an optional strategy (replication varies according to the genetic complexity of the current infection). This review highlights the complexity of interspecies and intrastrain interactions among Leishmania parasites as well as the different factors that influence this interplay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: mucosal immunization; mucosal vaccine; vaccine delivery; administration volume; targeted vaccines; M cell targeting; dendritic cell targeting; C5aR1; C5a1R; CD88; EP54; EP67
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:17:30 CEST)
Generating long-lived mucosal and systemic antibodies through respiratory immunization with protective antigens encapsulated in nanoscale biodegradable particles could potentially decrease or eliminate the incidence of many infectious diseases but requires incorporation of a suitable mucosal immunostimulant. We previously found that respiratory immunization with a model protein antigen (LPS-free OVA) encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 nanoparticles (~380 nm diameter) surface modified with complement peptide-derived immunostimulant 02 (CPDI-02; formerly EP67) through 2kDa PEG linkers increases mucosal and systemic OVA-specific memory T-cells with long-lived surface phenotypes in young, naïve female C57BL/6 mice. Here, we determined if respiratory immunization with LPS-free OVA encapsulated in similar PLGA 50:50 microparticles (~1 μm diameter) surface modified with CPDI-02 (CPDI-02-MP) increases long-term OVA-specific mucosal and systemic antibodies. We found that, compared to MP surface modified with inactive, scrambled scCPDI-02 (scCPDI-02-MP), intranasal administration of CPDI-02-MP in 50 μL sterile PBS greatly increased titers of short-term (14 days post-immunization) and long-term (90 days post-immunization) antibodies against encapsulated LPS-free OVA in nasal lavage fluids, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and sera of young, naïve female C57BL/6 mice. Thus, surface modification of biodegradable microparticles with CPDI-02 is likely to increase long-term mucosal and systemic antibodies against encapsulated protein antigen after respiratory and possibly other routes of mucosal immunization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0143.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: non-typhoidal Salmonella; ERIC-PCR typing; WGS; virulence-related genes; SPIs; Salmonella virulence plasmids; prophages
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:07:34 CEST)
In this work, we analysed human isolates of nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (NTS), which were collected from salmonellosis cases in Armenia from 1996 to 2019. This disease became a leading food-borne bacterial infection in the region, with the younger age groups especially affected. The isolates were characterised by serotyping, Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) typing, and whole genome sequencing (WGS). The main serotypes were S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Arizonae. ERIC-PCR indicated a high degree of clonality among S. Typhimurium strains, which were also multidrug-resistant and produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases. During the study period, the frequency of S. Typhimurium and S. Arizonae isolations were decreasing, but with the increase of S. Enteritidis and other NTS. A total of 42 NTS isolates were subjected to WGS and explored for virulence-related traits and the corresponding genetic elements. Some virulence and genetic factors were shared by all NTS serotypes, while the main differences were attributed to the serotype-specific diversity of virulence genes, SPIs, virulence plasmids, and phages. The results indicated the variability and dynamics in the epidemiology of salmonellosis and a high virulence potential of human NTS isolates circulating in the region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0142.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: glycogen; autophagy; lysosome; Stbd1; Gabarapl1; acid α-glucosidase (Gaa)
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:58:31 CEST)
Degradation of intracellular components through autophagy is a fundamental process to maintain cellular integrity and homeostasis. Recently a glycogen-selective autophagy pathway has been described, termed ‘glycophagy’. Glycogen is a primary storage depot and regulator of glucose availability, and glycophagy is emerging as a critical physiological process involved in energy metabolism. Glycophagy-mediated degradation of glycogen appears to operate in parallel with the well-described canonical pathway of glycogenolysis involving glycogen phosphorylase. Evidence suggests that starch-binding domain protein-1 (Stbd1) is a key glycogen-binding protein involved in tagging glycogen for glycophagy, and that Gabarapl1 is primarily involved as the Atg8 family protein recruiting the Stbd1-glycogen complex into the forming glycophagosome. The nuances of glycophagy protein machinery, regulation and lysosomal glucose release are yet to be fully elucidated. In this mini-review, we critically analyze the current evidence base for glycophagy as a selective-autophagy process of physiological importance and highlight areas where further investigation is warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: hemorrhagic shock; multimodal monitoring; individualized therapy; fluid therapy; critical care; trauma
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:56:33 CEST)
Worldwide, one of the main causes of death among young adults is multiple trauma. In these pa-tients hemorrhagic shock represents the leading cause for worsening of the clinical status and for increased morbidity and mortality. This is due to a multifactorial complex involving cellular, bi-ological, and biophysical mechanisms. The most important mechanisms affecting clinical out-come are oxidative stress, the augmentation of pro-inflammatory status, immune deficiency, dis-ruptions in the coagulation cascade, imbalances in electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. Poly-trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock need adequate fluid management to ensure hemodynamic stability that must consider not only the maintenance of adequate blood pressure, but also the ad-equate oxygenation of tissues for optimal cellular function. In the current clinical practice, fluid resuscitation in polytrauma patients uses a variety of widely studied pharmacological products, such as crystalloids, colloids, blood transfusions, and the infusion of other blood products. Alt-hough these products exist, an agreement was not reached on a standard administration protocol that could be generally applied for all patients. Moreover, numerous studies have reported a se-ries of adverse events related to fluid resuscitation and to the inadequate use of these products. This review aims at describing the impact the administration of all the solutions used in fluid re-suscitation might have on the cellular and pathophysiological mechanisms in the case of poly-trauma patients suffering from hemorrhagic shock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0140.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: C*-algebra; Bieberbach conjecture; de Branges theorem; Robertson conjecture; Lebedev-Milin conjecture; Zalcman conjecture; Krzyz conjecture; Corona conjecture; Riemann mapping theorem
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:53:02 CEST)
We study C*-algebraic versions of following conjectures/theorems: (1) Bieberbach conjecture (de Branges theorem) (2) Robertson conjecture (3) Lebedev-Milin conjecture (4) Zalcman conjecture (5) Krzyz conjecture (6) Corona conjecture (Carleson theorem). We prove that the C*-algebraic Bieberbach Conjecture for invertible coefficients is true for second degree C*-algebraic polynomials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0139.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: blackfin reef shark; Carcharhinus melanopterus; shark behaviour; shark ethology; shark cognition
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:44:57 CEST)
The chondrichthyan lineage diverged from the osteichthyan line 440 million years ago, resulting in a vast evolutionary gulf between modern elasmobranchs and other vertebrates. Though this has supported the assumption that sharks are ancient, dangerous, and binary-minded, the few ethological studies done have noted intelligent actions including social exchanges. Yet their behaviour remains little known. On seeing that Carcharhinus melanopterus displayed complex actions during incidental meetings, a long-term ethological study of the species was carried out using artificial aggregations, at several sites in the fringe lagoon of Mo’orea Island, French Polynesia. Short and long-term behaviour was recorded in 473 individuals, including an ethogram, roaming patterns, social interactions, and cognition. C. melanopterus is considered sedentary, yet the home range could also be viewed as a place to pause between travels, for most individuals left for long periods. The study community and its visitors travelled in correlation with the lunar phase, in groups of up to six individuals, socializing with conspecifics encountered along the way, and displaying fluid social dynamics. C. melanopterus was highly alert to danger yet prone to investigate novel objects, a combination that generated a variety of tactics to remain hidden while investigating the environment. Basic to this was the use of the visual limit for escape or to screen their presence, indicating an awareness of being present and observable. Using their other senses, they could focus their attention on events beyond visual range and made swift decisions to act as circumstances unfolded. In their non-territorial, non-hierarchical society, any shark could lead, but it was usually the same ones that did so. Therefore, unusual individuals had a significant effect on events through social learning, suggesting the potential for culture. Actions in a variety of situations suggested complex cognition, and individuals displayed both positive and negative subjective states including playfulness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0138.v1
Online: 8 August 2022 (08:37:14 CEST)
Since last century, humanity has been using and disposing of resources at a greater rate than the Earth’s biocapacity to regenerate. Consequently, habitats are being destroyed, climate is changing and, for most, life conditions are deteriorating. To avoid collapse, humanity has been, at least in theory, trying to change the foundations of development so that it becomes ‘sustainable’ and, while meeting the social, economic and environmental needs of the present, does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To help on this task, in the 1960s, UNESCO proposed the establishment of laboratories for developing and testing sustainable approaches. These became known as Biosphere Reserves or, simply, biospheres. Today, Biosphere Reserves are considered to be the main instrument for testing and monitoring sustainable development approaches. By 2020, there were more than 700 biospheres in over 120 countries around the world - one third of which are located in prosperous countries with very-high human development levels. As of today, there is no mechanism to objectively measure the effectiveness of these reserves that also allows comparison between biospheres, their development approaches and outcomes, or over time. The objective of this work is to present a tool that fulfills these gaps and that, additionally, helps with establishing aspirational targets and identifying key areas that need improvement. The tool focuses on Biosphere Reserves located in countries with very-high levels of human development (but can be easily adapted to other countries); it addresses the 17 sustainable development goals and considers relevant international agreements. It is based on the rational that, to become widely used, it needs to be simple. Therefore, it uses data collected for other ends, hence available, and commonly used technology, such as excel. The tool consists of a spreadsheet that links a punctuating and a colouring system to topics, criteria, indicators and measures. The case study was on the Sunshine Coast region (Australia), which is in the process of being nominated a biosphere reserve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Co-generation system; Gas turbine control system; System efficiency; Heat balance
Online: 8 August 2022 (08:29:12 CEST)
The power utility, Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) is faced with challenges of supplying adequate power to the ever-increasing demand. To this end, this paper explores the installed Ubungo Gas Power Plant (UGP II) located in Dar es Salaam to find means of utilizing it in co-generation method. The study embarked on detailed modelling of the system and run simulations which indicated that the co-generation can result to power generation efficiency increase between 10.42 to 50.92%. It is recommended to change the UGP II to exploit this co-generation method. Further, the study could be improved by including more parameters of the gas and steam plant and verify them experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0136.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Phantom energy; LRS Bianchi type-I; $f(R,T)$ theory; $5d$ spacetimes
Online: 8 August 2022 (08:11:41 CEST)
We obtain exact solutions to the field equations for 5 dimensional LRS Bianchi type-I spacetime in $f(R,T)$ theory of gravity where specifically the following three cases are considered: (i) $f(R,T)=\mu(R+T)$, (ii) $f(R,T)=R \mu + R T \mu^2$ and (iii) $f(R,T)=R+\mu R^2+\mu T$ where $R$ and $T$ respectively the Ricci scalar and trace of the energy-momentum tensor. It is found that the equation of state (EOS) parameter $w$ is governed by the parameter $\mu$ involved in the $f(R,T)$ expressions. We fine-tune the parameter $\mu$ to obtain effect of phantom energy in the model, however we also restrict this parameter to obtain a stable model of the universe. It is noted that the model isotropizes at finite cosmic time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling; propofol; low cardiac output; pharmacokinetics; neonate; developmental pharmacology; asphyxia; hypothermia; pediatrics; pharmacokinetics
Online: 8 August 2022 (06:12:36 CEST)
Background: pathophysiological changes like low cardiac output (LCO) impact pharmacokinetics, but its extent may be different throughout pediatrics compared to adults. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling enables further exploration. Methods: A validated propofol model was used to simulate the impact of LCO on propofol clearance across age groups using the PBPK platform, Simcyp® (version 19). The hepatic and renal extraction ratio of propofol was then determined in all age groups. Subsequently, dose explorations were conducted under LCO conditions, targeting a 3 µg/mL (80-125%) propofol concentration range. Results: Both hepatic and renal extraction ratios increased from neonates, infants, children to adolescents and adults. The relative change in clearance following CO reductions increased with age, with the least impact of LCO in neonates. The predicted concentration remained within the 3 µg/mL (80-125%) range under normal CO and LCO (up to 30%) conditions in all age groups. When CO was reduced by 40-50%, a dose reduction of 15% is warranted in neonates, infants and children, 25% in adolescents and adults. Conclusions: PBPK driven, the impact of reduced CO on propofol clearance is predicted to be age-dependent, proportionally greater in adults. Consequently, age group specific dose reductions for propofol are required in LCO conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0134.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electricity deficit; rural and urban electricity; future isolated grid
Online: 8 August 2022 (05:53:38 CEST)
Worldwide, it is imperative for citizens to have access to electricity. This applies to Congolese--rural and urban dwellers, and if possible, it should be guaranteed by government’s laws and policies. However, the rural and urban areas of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) suffer majorly from lack of access to electricity. The major reasons are the high costs associated with connection to the national central grid and production insufficiency. Therefore, one feasible approach to electrify these areas is to use microgrids. This technology is decent and viable option for energy revolution since it incorporates energy storage systems, distributed generators, and localized loads. This paper has taken to implement this solution by firstly analysing some cities located at the borders of large rivers or watercourses (with known depth and width), such as the Congo River considered for hydrokinetic power (HKP). However, where the Congo River does not pass through, the paper will consider largest rivers passing in the area. For the case of photovoltaic electricity production, large cities are considered those with good sunshine and large population who have purchasing power for the photovoltaic electricity. The waste to energy power plans will consider the top ten densely populated cities in DRC. The proposed microgrids will operate in isolation (islanded) mode. This paper proposed 44 projects to generate 795 690 kW total energy from the microgrids. These energies are divided as 661 000 kW from solar photovoltaic, 83 790 kW from waste to energy, and 50 900 kW from hydrokinetic generation. The urban share will be 94.9% and rural area share will be 5.1% of this generation. Further work needs to include biomass as a possible renewable energy to add in the mix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0133.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Abscisic acid biosynthetic genes; aquaporins; Biofilm forming bacteria; growth traits; oxidative injury; Tomato
Online: 8 August 2022 (05:48:17 CEST)
Use of rhizosphere microorganisms provides an alternative or supplement to conventional plant breeding to improve water deficit tolerance of tomato plants. Experiment was carried out to explore the effect of two microbial species, AMF (Rhizophagus irregularis) and Bacillus subtilis, in single and co-application, on growth, colonization, and molecular aspects of tomato plants under drought stress. Co-inoculated plants showed less reduction in growth traits, photosynthetic pigments, colonization rate, and increased compatible solutes like proline which help in sustaining relative water content than non-inoculated plants. Inoculation considerably enhanced proline dehydrogenase activity, and significantly reduced both Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase activity causing lower proline accumulation in inoculated plants under drought stress. Co-inoculated plants showed obvious upregulation of antioxidant system, thus facilitating amelioration of oxidative stress through exclusion of reactive oxygen species. No inoculation under drought stress upregulated abscisic acid related genes expression but have no effect in plants inoculated either sole or mixed inoculation. Expression of aquaporin genes was upregulated in plants co-inoculated and with AMF alone under normal condition. However the expression of aquaporin genes were decreased or unaffected in plants inoculated with Bacillus subtilis but increased in non-inoculated plants. Co-applied AMF and bacillus subtilis substantially increase drought tolerance by upregulating proline metabolism, antioxidant enzymes and aquaporin genes. Therefore our results suggest that co-inoculation mediated drought tolerance is linked with increased proline accumulation, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and differential regulation of ABA biosynthetic and aquaporin genes, which is vital for osmotic adjustment of host plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0257.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Relativistic material particles; active gravitational mass; Lorentz transformations; isotropic Schwarzschild metric; geodesics equations
Online: 8 August 2022 (05:27:29 CEST)
A cloud of relativistic material particles is considered, for which the distortions of length and time caused by the presence of the Lorentz factor an order of magnitude greater than curvature of space-time by gravity. The gravitational mass of the cloud is found in the region where its size is insignificant. It is established that the coefficient of dependence of the cloud mass on the total rest mass of its particles includes a complete elliptic integral of the 2nd kind.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: civil science; antibiotic producers screening; actinomycetes; reporter systems; chartreusin; pikromycin
Online: 8 August 2022 (05:27:03 CEST)
Since streptomycin discovery, actinomycetes were the main source for new antibiotics, but after the Golden age (1950-1960th) the discovery rate significantly decreased. The high probability to rediscover well-known antibiotics led to a reduction in interest in soil bacteria as a source for new antibiotics. At the same time, actinomycetes remain a very promising reservoir for searching for new active molecules. In this work, we present several reporters containing eye-visible fluorescent protein genes, which can be used to increase the efficiency of determining the mechanism of antibiotics at the very initial stage of screening. Presented reporters and the following pipeline were optimized given the involvement of citizen scientists without specialized skills and equipment in order to utilize the reservoir of soil bacteria in the search for new antibiotic producers. The combination of mechanism-based approaches and civil science has proved its effectiveness in practice revealing a significant increase in the screening rate. Two new strains Streptomyces sp. KB-1 and BV113 were found to produce antibiotics pikromycin and chartreusin, respectively, demonstrating the efficiency of the pipeline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: manifold system; bucket foundation; combined bearing capacity; Torsion; bearing capacity envelope
Online: 8 August 2022 (04:33:41 CEST)
Bucket foundation normally used as the basis of the pipeline terminal in oilfield or wellhead manifold system, and the length-to-diameter ratio is usually between 1 and 2. In the stage of installation and operation of the pipeline, bucket foundation will sustain vertical and horizontal force, moment and torsional load from the upper structure. However, most existing equations of capacity envelopes for bucket foundations are in terms of length-to-diameter ratios less than 1, and the influence of torsional load on composite bearing capacity of bucket foundation is not considered. In this study, finite element simulations are conducted to study the interaction between soil and bucket foundation (with a length-to-diameter ratio between 1 and 2) subjected to combined loadings. The influence of torsion on uniaxial bearing capacity and VHM composite bearing capacity is discussed respectively. The results showed that the torsion can cause bucket foundation VHM of bearing capacity of composite envelope surface decrease. With regression analysis of the calculation results, calculation formula of composite bearing capacity considering the effects of torsion is summarized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0130.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; value co-creation; business sustainability; stakeholder
Online: 8 August 2022 (04:09:12 CEST)
As a typical form of value co-creation, crowdsourcing has been increasingly applied by firms to generate business value. By engaging a crowd, a platform, and other stakeholders, a crowdsourcer can foster the co-creation of a portfolio of value for diverse stakeholders. In analyzing the value co-creation in crowdsourcing, we propose a framework by combining the theories and frameworks in value co-creation and crowdsourcing. The framework examines the key stakeholders, joint purpose, engaged value co-creation processes, contributions, bidirectional relationships of the engagement, and perceived value, exhibiting a holistic view of the value co-creation in a crowdsourcing project. Results of the analysis reveal the business performance of the crowdsourcing project and identify areas of improvement regarding business sustainability. This is a major theoretical contribution of this study. The research design applied a case study approach to empirically investigate a crowdsourcing project. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0129.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: predator–prey systems; Kolmogorov systems; KCC-theory; the deviation curvature tensor; Jacobi stability
Online: 8 August 2022 (03:58:14 CEST)
In this paper, we will consider an autonomous two-dimensional ODE Kolmogorov type 1 system with three parameters, which is a particular system of the general predator–prey systems with 2 a Holling type II. By reformulating this system as a set of two second order differential equations, we 3 will investigate the nonlinear dynamics of the system from the Jacobi stability point of view, using 4 the Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) geometric theory. We will determine the nonlinear connection, the 5 Berwald connection and the five KCC-invariants which express the intrinsic geometric properties 6 of the system, including the deviation curvature tensor. Furthermore, we will obtain necessary and 7 sufficient conditions on the parameters of the system in order to have the Jacobi stability near the 8 equilibrium points and we will point out these on a few examples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0128.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: monkeypox, transmission, outbreak, atypical presentation
Online: 8 August 2022 (03:57:03 CEST)
An ongoing monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries has resulted in the declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). Though monkeypox has long been endemic in regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, relatively little is known about its ecology, epidemiology, and transmission. Here, we consider the relevant research on both monkeypox and smallpox, a close relative, to make inferences about the current outbreak. Undetected circulation, combined with atypical transmission and case presentation, including mild and asymptomatic disease, have led to the spread of monkeypox in non-endemic regions. Broader availability of diagnostics, enhanced surveillance, and targeted education, combined with a better understanding of the routes of transmission, are critical to identify at-risk populations and design science-based countermeasures to control the current outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: environmental literacy; sustainable environment; nursing students
Online: 8 August 2022 (03:40:49 CEST)
Environmental literate citizenship is a lifelong learning process that aims to develop citizens who have the knowledge, skills, and commitment to make responsible decisions that will affect the quality of the environment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the environmental literacy levels of nursing students in terms of sustainable environmental by considering the dimensions of environmental literacy. It was also aimed at understanding the correlation among dimensions of environmental literacy and revealing the factors affecting the dimensions of environmental literacy. This research was designed as a descriptive study in the survey model. A total of 278 nursing students participated in this research. It was revealed that students obtained a high score for use and concern from the dimensions of environmental literacy, their attitudes towards the environment were moderate; however, nursing students took the lowest points for the environmental knowledge component, which indicates that students need support in environmental knowledge. It was put forward that there were statistically significant differences based on gender and taking environmental related courses with dimensions of environmental literacy. All dimensions of environmental literacy were found to be positively correlated with each other, ranging from low to moderate relations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0085.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: The Sun; Solar Flare; Solar Core; Solar Interior layers; Radiative Zone; Convection Zone
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:59:45 CEST)
The Sun is a huge gaseous body. However, we cannot observe events in the inner Sun due to the convection zone opacity according to previous models. Therefore, the flares originate from the front surface of the Sun. But the current study relied on the distance distribution of X-Ray solar flares, which concluded that the inner layers have much lower opacity than expected. It is even less than what was expected by the latest models based on helioseismology. This means that the flares may originate from the solar interior or solar core, and perhaps from the backside surface, and even appear to us from the frontside surface. Which the re-estimate and correct the currently listed solar flare’s location is needed. Additionally, the flare’s distance illustrations the solar interior layers and appears their boundaries from the core to the photosphere. This method allows us to monitor the variation of the core’s radius with time. The model of the flare’s distance has been developed in current study. But this needs to redevelopment after re-estimating the solar flares locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0126.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Eugenol; Essential oils; Nanoencapsulation; Biopesticides; Insecticides; Odorant binding proteins; Inverted virtual screening
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:43:22 CEST)
The eugenol derivative, ethyl 4-(2-methoxy-4-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl)phenoxy)butanoate 1, with promising insecticidal capability was encapsulated in liposomal formulations of egg-phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (Egg-PC:Ch) 70:30 and of 100% dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG). Compound-loaded Egg-PC:Ch liposomes exhibit small hydrodynamic diameters (below 100 nm), high encapsulation efficiency (88.8% ± 2.7%), higher stability and a more efficient compound release, being chosen for assays in Sf9 insect cells. Compound 1 elicited a loss of cell viability up to 80% after 72h of incubation. Relevantly, encapsulation maintained the toxicity of compound 1 towards insect cells, while it lowered toxicity towards human cells, thus showing the selectivity of the system. Structure based inverted virtual screening was used to predict the most likely targets and molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations were used to demonstrate that this molecule can form a stable complex with insect odorant binding proteins and/or acetylcholinesterase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0125.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: antioxidants; bioactive compounds; nutraceuticals; phenols; pomegranate peels
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:38:21 CEST)
Pomegranate use is increasing worldwide as it is considered a tasteful healthy food. It is mainly used as fruit, juice and jam. The pomegranate peel represents about 40-50% of the total fruit weight and contains numerous and diverse bioactive substances. The aim of this research was to analyse the pomegranate peel composition of Wonderful cultivated in Southern Italy and treated with an innovative physic dry concentration procedure. The aim was to verify how the drying process influenced the bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals. A comparison with the peel composition of freeze dried Wonderful cultivated in Southern Italy, freeze dried Wonderful cultivated in South Africa and freeze-dried pomegranate Kullu and Himachal cultivated in India has been done. Results evidenced that in pomegranate peels of Wonderful cultivated in Calabria and dried with the innovative process, total phenolic substances, total flavonoids, vitamin C, vitamin E and antioxidant activities, were the highest. Great amounts of single phenolic acids and flavonoids were found in Calabrian Wonderful peels dried with the innovative process. Overall, it emerged that the great amount of bioactive and diverse compounds found in Calabrian Wonderful pomegranate peel, come from the niche pedoclimatic conditions, and the physic drying innovative methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Digital Systems; Educational Systems; State-space Models; Optimal Control; Long-term learning prediction; Learning Analytics
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:37:36 CEST)
Every month teachers face the dilemma of what exercises should their students practice, and what their consequences are on long-term learning. Since teachers prefer to pose their own exercises, this generates a large number of questions, each one attempted by a small number of students. Thus, we couldn’t use models based on big data such as deep learning. Instead, we developed a simple to understand state-space model that predicts end-of-year national test scores. We used 2,386 online fourth-grade mathematic questions designed by teachers and each attempted by some of the 500 students in 24 low socioeconomic schools. We found that the state-space model predictions improved month-by-month and that in most months it outperformed linear regression models. Moreover, the state-space estimator provides for each month a direct mechanism to simulate different practice strategies and compute their impact on the end-of-year standardized national test. We built iso-impact curves based on two critical variables: the number of questions solved correctly in the first attempt and the total number of exercises attempted. This allows the teacher to visualize the trade-off between asking students to do exercises more carefully or doing more exercises. To the best of our knowledge, this model is the first of its kind in education. It is a novel tool that supports teachers drive whole classes to achieve long-term learning targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: systems analysis; model predictive control; transcranial electrical stimulation; functional near infrared spectroscopy; pupillometry
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:26:00 CEST)
Individual differences in the responsiveness of the brain to transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is increasingly demonstrated in large variability in the tES effects. Anatomically detailed computational brain models have been developed to address this variability; however, static brain models are not ‘realistic’ in accounting for the dynamic state of the brain. Therefore, human-in-the-loop optimization is proposed in this perspective article based on an extensive systems analysis of the tES neurovascular effects. First, modal analysis was conducted using a physiologically detailed neurovascular model that found stable modes in the 0 Hz to 0.05 Hz range for the pathway for vessel response through the smooth muscle cells, measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). tES effects in the 0 Hz to 0.05 Hz range can also be measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-tDCS data with a maximum TR=10sec. Therefore, we investigated an open-source fMRI-tDCS dataset that used a TR=3.36sec. We found that both the anodal tDCS condition and sham tDCS condition had similar Finite Impulse Response at the region of interest underlying the anode and a remote location, which indicated a global hemodynamic effect of sham tDCS beyond the intended transient sensations. Here, transient sensations can have arousal effects on the hemodynamics so we conducted a healthy case series for black box modeling of fNIRS-pupillometry of short-duration tDCS effects. The block exogeneity test rejected the claim that tDCS is not a 1-step Granger-cause of the fNIRS total hemoglobin changes (HbT) and pupil dilation changes (p<0.05). Also, grey-box modeling using fNIRS of the tDCS effects in chronic stroke showed HbT response to be significantly different (paired-sample t-test, p<0.05) between the ipsilesional and the contralesional hemisphere for primary motor cortex tDCS and cerebellar tDCS which was subserved by the smooth muscle cells. Here, our perspective is that various physiological pathways subserving tES effects can lead to state-trait variability that can be challenging for clinical translation. Therefore, we conducted a case study on human-in-the-loop optimization using our reduced dimension model and a stochastic, derivative-free Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy. Future studies need to investigate human-in-the-loop optimization of tES for reducing inter-subject and intra-subject variability in tES effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: neurogenic potential; neurites; SCAPs; sphere; stem cells
Online: 5 August 2022 (09:59:07 CEST)
Abstract: Cell-based neural regeneration is challenging due to the difficulty in obtaining sufficient neural stem cells with clinical applicability. SCAPs originating from embryonic neural crest with high neurogenic potential could be a promising cell source for neural regeneration. This study aimed to investigate whether the formation of 3D spheres can promote SCAPs neurogenic potential. Material and methods: 3D SCAPs spheres were first generated in 256-well agarose microtissue mold. The spheres and single cells were individually cultured on collagen I coated μ-Slide for 4 and 7 days. Cell morphological changes, neural marker expression, and neurite outgrowth were evaluated under a confocal microscope. Secretion of BDNF and NGF-β was measured by ELISA kits. Results: Pronounced morphological changes were noticed in a time-dependent manner. The migrating cells’ morphology changed from fibroblast-like cells to neuron-like cells. Compared to the 2D culture, neurite length, number, and the expression of neural markers, including Nestin, β-tubulin III, NeuN, and MAP-2 were significantly increased in the 3D spheres, while the secretion of BDNF and NGF-β was markedly downregulated at day 7. Conclusion: The formation of 3D spheres enhanced the neurogenic potential of SCAPs, suggesting the advantage of using the 3D spheres of SCAPs for the treatment of neural diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0121.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: ZnO morphologies; Perovskite; Efficiency; photovoltaic devices
Online: 5 August 2022 (09:53:28 CEST)
Zinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely studied over the last decade for its remarkable properties in optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices because of its high electron mobility and excitonic properties, probably the broadest range of nanostructured forms, and their ease and low cost of synthesis by a wide variety of methods. The volume of recent work on ZnO nanostructures and their devices can potentially overshadow significant developments in the field. Therefore, there is a need for a concise description of the most recent advances in the field. In this review, we focus on the effect of ZnO nanostructure morphologies on the performance of ZnO-based solar cells sensitized using methylammonium lead iodide perovskite. We present an exhaustive discussion of the synthesis routes for different ZnO nanostructure morphologies, ways to control the morphology, and the impact of morphology on the photo-conversion efficiency of a given PSC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Mine Tailings; Industrial Waste; Geopolymer; Durability; Microstructure; Thermal; Leaching
Online: 5 August 2022 (09:45:36 CEST)
The mining sector generates a substantial quantity of stone waste and tailings, which constitutes an environmental risk. The most prevalent method for disposing of this industrial waste is dumping, which contributes to soil deterioration and water contamination while acquiring precious land. It can be recycled using a number of processes, such as the promising geopolymerization technique, which transforms waste into value. This study reviews current developments in the manufacturing of mine tailings-based geopolymer composites from industrial waste as a possible sustainable building material. This paper also gives in-depth studies on the characteristics and behaviors of mine tailings composites used in geopolymer manufacturing, including durability, microstructure, thermal and leaching properties. This review also identifies knowledge gaps that must be filled in order to advance mine tailings composites for geopolymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0119.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: LULC; prediction; artificial neural network; Urmia; CA-Markov
Online: 5 August 2022 (09:32:32 CEST)
A correctly obtained Land-use/land-cover (LULC) prediction map is essential to under-standing and assessing future patterns. In the study, the LULC map of Urmia/Iran in 2030 was produced using two different prediction methods CA-Markov and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In general, the study followed a methodology consisting of three steps. In the first steps, Landsat satellite images acquired in 2000, 2010 and 2020 were classified with maximum likelihood algorithm and LULC maps were prepared for each year. In the second stage, to investigate the LULC prediction methods' validation (CA-Markov and ANN) the LULC prediction map of 2020 was produced using the LULC map of 2000 and 2010; In this step, the predicted LULC map of 2020 and the actual LULC map of 2020 were evaluated by correctness, completeness and quality indexes. Finally, The LULC map for 2030 was prepared using all two algorithms and the change map was extracted. The results show that the area of soil and vegetation decreased, and built-up regions increased during the research period. The methods validation results show that the two algorithms are much closer to each other. Nevertheless, in general, ANN has the highest completeness (96.21%) and quality (93.8%) and CA-Markov the most correctness (96.47). This study shows that the CA-Markov algorithm is most successful in predicting the future that had larger areas and a higher percentage in the region (urban and vegetation cover) and the ANN algorithm in predicting phenomena that had smaller levels with fewer percentages (soil and rock).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0117.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Continual Learning; Lifelong Learning; Prototypical Networks; Catastrophic Forgetting; Intransigence; Task-free; Incremental Learning; Online Learning; Human Activity Recognition
Online: 5 August 2022 (08:35:15 CEST)
Continual learning (CL), a.k.a lifelong learning, is an emerging research topic that has been attracting increasing interest in the field of machine learning. With human activity recognition (HAR) playing a key role in enabling numerous real-world applications, an essential step towards the long-term deployment of such systems is to extend the activity model to dynamically adapt to changes in people’s everyday behavior. Current research in CL applied to HAR domain is still under-explored with researchers exploring existing methods developed for computer vision in HAR. Moreover, analysis has so far focused on task-incremental or class-incremental learning paradigms where task boundaries are known. This impedes the applicability of such methods for real-world systems. To push this field forward, we build on recent advances in the area of continual learning and design a lifelong adaptive learning framework using Prototypical Networks, LAPNet-HAR, that processes sensor-based data streams in a task-free data-incremental fashion and mitigates catastrophic forgetting using experience replay and continual prototype adaptation. Online learning is further facilitated using contrastive loss to enforce inter-class separation. LAPNet-HAR is evaluated on 5 publicly available activity datasets in terms of its ability to acquire new information while preserving previous knowledge. Our extensive empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of LAPNet-HAR in task-free CL and uncover useful insights for future challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0104.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: HEMS; Reinforcement Learning; Deep Neural Network; Q-Value; Policy Gradient; Natural Gradient; Actor-Critic; Residential, Commercial, Academic.
Online: 5 August 2022 (04:43:42 CEST)
The twin capabilities of learning from experience and learning at higher levels of abstraction, set reinforcement learning apart from other areas of machine learning and (within the broader context) all of artificial intelligence. It allows algorithmic agents to replace human beings in the real world, including in homes and buildings, in application domains that had hitherto been considered to be beyond today’s capabilities. This goal, specifically aimed at home energy automation that forms the backdrop of this article, which surveys the use of deep reinforcement learning in various HEMS applications. The article provides an overview of generic reinforcement learning. This is followed with discussions on the state-of-the-art methods for value based, policy gradient, and actor-critic methods in deep reinforcement learning. In order to make published literature in reinforcement learning more accessible to HEMS researchers, verbal descriptions are accompanied with explanatory figures as well as mathematical expressions using the same terminology as the machine learning community. Next, a detailed survey of how reinforcement learning is used in different HEMS domains is described. The survey also considers what kind of reinforcement learning algorithms are used in each HEMS application. The survey suggests that this research is still in its infancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0116.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Biomass partitioning; Digital root phenotyping; Image analysis; Rhizotron; Root architecture; Root phenes; RootSnap
Online: 5 August 2022 (04:23:44 CEST)
Citron watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an extremely drought-tolerant cucurbit crop widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa in arid and semi-arid environments characterized by drought. The species is a C3 xerophyte used for multiple purposes, including intercropping with maize and has a deep taproot system. The deep taproot system plays a key role in the species’ adaptation to dry conditions. Understanding root system development of this crop could be useful in identifying traits for breeding water-use efficient and drought-tolerant varieties. This study compared root system architecture of citron watermelon accessions under water-stress conditions. Nine selected and drought-tolerant citron watermelon accessions were grown under non-stress (NS) and water stress (WS) conditions using the root rhizotron procedure in a glasshouse. The following root system architecture (RSA) traits were measured, namely: root system width (RSW), root system depth (RSD), convex hull area (CHA), total root length (TRL), root branch count (RBC), total root volume (TRV), leaf area (LA), leaf number (LN), first seminal root length (FSRL), seminal root angle (SRA), root dry mass (RDM), shoot dry mass (SDM), root–shoot mass ratio (RSM), root mass ratio (RMR), shoot mass ratio (SMR) and root tissue density (RTD). The data collected on RSA traits were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and principal component analyses. ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0.05) accession × water stress interaction effect for studied RSA traits. Under WS, RDM exhibited significant and positive correlations with RSM (r = 0.65), RMR (r = 0.66), RSD (r = 0.66), TRL (r = 0.60), RBC (r = 0.72), FSRL (r = 0.73) and LN (r = 0.70). Principal component analysis revealed high loading scores for the following RSA traits: RSW (0.89), RSD (0.97), TRL (0.99), TRV (0.90), TRL (0.99), RMR (0.96) and RDM (0.76). In conclusion, the study has shown that the identified RSA traits could be useful in crop improvement programmes for citron watermelon genotypes with enhanced drought adaptation for improved yield performance under drought-prone environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Dew computing; Internet of Things; Blockchain; Hotspot Network
Online: 5 August 2022 (03:46:27 CEST)
Building a widely distributed hotspot network is a very tedious task due to its complexity. Providing security, fully distributed network services, and cost-conscious impact are the major challenges behind this goal. To overcome these issues, we have presented a novel distributed hotspot network architecture with five layers that can provide large-scale hotspot coverage as an assimilated result. Our contributions to this new architecture highlight important aspects. First, scalability can be increased by including many Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices with sensors and Wi-Fi and/or LoraWAN connectivity modules. Second, hotspot owners can rent out their hotspots to create a distributed hotspot network in which the hotspots can act as an ordinary data gateway, a full-fledged hotspot miner, and a lightweight hotspot miner to earn crypto tokens as rewards for certain activities. Third, the advantages of Wi-Fi and LoraWAN can be seamlessly leveraged to achieve optimal coverage, higher network security, and suitable data transmission rate for transferring sensor data from IoT devices to remote application servers and users. Fourth, blockchain is used to enhance the decentralized behavior of the architecture presented here by providing immutability and independence from a centralized regulator and making the network architecture more reliable and transparent. The main feature of our paper is the use of the tau-computing paradigm along with hotspots to improve availability, Internet backhaul-agnostic network coverage, and synchronous update capability, and tau-aware leasing to strengthen and improve coverage. We also discuss the key challenges and future roadmap that require further investment and deployment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0087.v8
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Sieve of Eratosthenes; Goldbach conjecture; Polignac conjecture; Twin Prime conjecture
Online: 5 August 2022 (03:41:27 CEST)
We demonstrate a new quantitative method to the sieve of Eratosthenes, which is an alternative to the sieve of Legendre. In this method, every element of a given set is sifted out once only, and therefore, this method is free of the Mobius function and of the parity barrier. Using this method, we prove that every sufficiently large even number is the sum of two primes, and that every even number is the difference of two primes in infinitely many ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0114.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Beyond the Standard Model; Dark matter; Galaxy formation; Neutrino masses; Evolution of the universe
Online: 5 August 2022 (03:25:10 CEST)
Physics lacks a confirmed description of dark matter, has yet to develop an adequate understanding of dark energy, and includes unverified conjectures regarding new elementary particles. This essay features modeling that addresses those problems and explains otherwise unexplained data. Our modeling starts from five bases – multipole expansions for the electromagnetic and gravitational fields associated with an object, the list of known elementary particles, some aspects of mathematics for isotropic harmonic oscillators, concordance cosmology, and a conjecture that the universe includes six isomers of most elementary particles. The multipole expansions – which have use in conjunction with Newtonian kinematics modeling, special relativity, and general relativity – lead to a catalog of kinematics properties such as charge, magnetic moment, mass, and repulsive gravitational pressure. The multipole expansions also point to all known elementary particles, some properties of those particles, and properties of some would-be elementary bosons and elementary fermions. The harmonic-oscillator mathematics points to Gauge symmetries regarding some elementary bosons. The would-be elementary fermions lack charge and would measure as dark matter. The conjecture regarding six isomers of most elementary particles rounds out and dominates our specification for dark matter. Five of the isomers form the basis for most dark matter. Our modeling explains ranges of observed ratios of dark matter effects to ordinary matter effects – for the universe, galaxy clusters, two sets of galaxies observed at high redshifts, three sets of galaxies observed at modest redshifts, and one type of depletion of cosmic microwave background radiation. Our description of repulsive gravitational pressure points toward resolution for tensions – between data and modeling – regarding the recent rate of expansion of the universe, resolution for possible tensions regarding large-scale clumping, and resolution for possible tensions regarding interactions between neighboring galaxies. Our work regarding gravity, dark matter, and elementary particles suggests characterizations for eras that might precede the inflationary epoch, a mechanism that might have produced baryon asymmetry, mechanisms that govern the rate of expansion of the universe, and insight about galaxy formation and evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0286.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: novel ncRNAs; DE landscape; LSCs and LTCs; LncRNA; MiRNA; CircRNA; ceRNA networks; molecular mechanism
Online: 4 August 2022 (16:29:49 CEST)
ALDH+ H1975 lung adenocarcinoma stem cells (LSCs) are a rare cell population identified in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). LSCs can self-renew, drive tumor initiation, growth, metastasis, and recurrence, and are also the predominant cause of poor prognosis due to their intrinsic resistance to drugs and chemotherapy. Consequently, LSCs are a promising target for LUAD therapy. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), exert many significant regulatory functions in the pathogenesis of human cancers, showing the necessity for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that underlie lung carcinogenesis. Nonetheless, research on many known transcripts and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) has already generated new information. Unknown biomarkers in ncRNAs and systematic and comprehensive interrelation with unknown ncRNAs and mRNAs may provide further insights into the biology of LUAD. Herein, a set of novel ncRNAs that include miRNAs, lncRNAs, circRNAs, were identified and differentially expressed patterns of ncRNAs and mRNAs in LSCs and ALDH- H1975 LUAD tumor cells (LTCs) were obtained using stringent bioinformatics pipelines. Through a meta-analysis of the identified landscapes, novel competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks were constructed to reveal the potential molecular mechanisms that regulate the hallmarks of LSCs and LTCs. This study presents a summary of novel ncRNAs and the fundamental roles of differentially expressed ncRNAs implicated in the activity of LSCs and LTCs. In addition, the study also provides a comprehensive resource for the future identification of diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarkers in LUAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Liquid metal; Additive manufacturing; Thermal management; Temperature gradient; Cooling rate; Crack
Online: 4 August 2022 (16:23:19 CEST)
How to effectively suppress thermal cracks in the metal laser additive manufacturing process is still one of the key issues to be solved in the field of laser additive manufacturing. Metal tin, with wide liquid phase working temperature range, high boiling point, low viscosity, high thermal conductivity and excellent electrical conductivity. The use of tin as an auxiliary thermal management material in the metal additive manufacturing process is expected to achieve effective regulation of the temperature field and stress field of the formed part, thereby inhibiting the initiation of cracks and obtaining formed parts with the target grain structure and high reliability. This paper presented a novel liquid metal-assisted laser additive manufacturing method (LMAAM). A numerical model for the laser additive manufacturing of tin-assisted titanium alloys was established. The differences of the flow field, temperature field and stress field of the formed parts with tin and without tin were compared and analyzed. The influence of the interaction position between the tin liquid level and the forming part on the temperature field and stress field of the forming part was deeply studied. The laser additive manufacturing experiment of tin-assisted titanium alloy was carried out, and the experimental results were basically consistent with the simulation results, which verified the validity of the model. LMAAM technology has proven to be an effective method for additive manufacturing of highly reliable formed parts.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0112.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: ground truth data; drone; mobile application; windshield survey; sample design; crop mapping; agriculture statistics; data dissemination; earth observation data; spatial database.
Online: 4 August 2022 (16:18:26 CEST)
Over the last few years, Earth Observation (EO) data has shifted towards increased use to produce official statistics, particularly in the agriculture sector. National statistics offices worldwide, including in Asia and the Pacific, are expanding their use of EO data to produce agricultural statistics such as crop classification, yield estimation, irrigation mapping, and crop loss estimation. The advances in image classification, such as pixel-based and phenology-based classifications, and machine learning create new opportunities for researchers to analyze EO data applied to agriculture statistics. However, it requires the ground truth (GT) data because classification result mainly depends on the quality of GT. Therefore, in this study, we introduced a random sampling approach to design and collect GT data using EO imagery and ancillary data. As a result of data collection, GT data improve the algorithms and validates classification results. Nevertheless, despite the importance of GT data, they are rarely disseminated as a data product in themselves. Thus, this results in an untapped opportunity to share GT data as a global public good, and improved use of survey and census data as a source of GT data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: critical success factors; organisational performance; shipping industry; digitalisation; digitisation
Online: 4 August 2022 (16:15:36 CEST)
The global shipping industry faces many uncertainties which impact on how organisations within this sector will perform in the future. Research in the critical success factors which impact global shipping industry in the digital era is lacking. This study plugs the gap in the literature by identifying four key critical success factors which are innovation capability, risk governance capability, leadership and strategic capability and technological capability. In addition, this study also found three organisational performance measures that are useful for senior management teams within the industry, namely, financial performance, operational performance and marketing performance. The findings establish a set of critical success factors and the corresponding relationships between the identified critical success factors and the identified organisational performance measures. The paper also provides managerial insights for industry practitioners for defining, prioritising and allocating resources in order to improve organisational performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0110.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: 3-aminopyridin-2(1H)-one derivatives; 3-(arylmethyl)-6-methyl-4-phenylpyridin-2(1H)-ones; antiradical activity; cytoprotective activity
Online: 4 August 2022 (14:12:03 CEST)
Currently, studies are being conducted on the possible role of the cytoprotective effect of biologically active substances in conditions of cerebral hypoxia or cardiomyopathies. At the same time, oxidative stress is considered as one of the important mechanisms of cellular cytotoxicity and a target for the action of cytoprotectors. The aim of this study is to search for derivatives of 3-(arylmethyl)-6-methyl-4-phenylpyridin-2(1H)-ones. The probability of cytoprotective action was assessed by two tests by measuring cell viability (with neutral red dye and MTT test). It was found that some derivatives of 3-(arylmethyl)-6-methyl-4-phenylpyridin-2(1H)-ones under the conditions of our experiment have a pronounced cytoprotective activity, providing better cell survival in vitro, including the MTT test and conditions of blood hyperviscosity. To correlate the obtained results in vitro, molecular docking of the synthesized derivatives was also carried out. The standard drug omeprazole (co-crystallized with the enzyme) was used as a standard. It was shown that all synthesized derivatives of 3-(arylmethyl)-6-methyl-4-phenylpyridin-2(1H)-ones had higher affinity for the selected protein than the standard gastro-cytoprotector omeprazole. The studied derivatives of 3-(arylmethyl)-6-methyl-4-phenylpyridin-2(1H)-ones also fully satisfy Lipinski's rule of thumb of five (RO5), which increases their chances for possible use as orally active drugs with a good ability to absorption and moderate lipophilicity. Thus, the results obtained make it possible to evaluate derivatives of 3-(arylmethyl)-6-methyl-4-phenylpyridin-2(1H)-ones as having a relatively high cytoprotective potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0109.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: speech emotion recognition; affective computing; data augmentations; wav2vec 2.0; SVM
Online: 4 August 2022 (14:09:21 CEST)
Data augmentation techniques recently gained more adoption in speech processing, including speech emotion recognition. Although more data tends to be more effective, there may be a trade-off in which more data will not provide a better model. This paper reports experiments on investigating the effects of data augmentation in speech emotion recognition. The investigation aims at finding the most useful type of data augmentation and the number of data augmentations for speech emotion recognition. The experiments are conducted on the Japanese Twitter-based emotional speech corpus. The results show that for speaker-independent data, two data augmentations with glottal source extraction and silence removal exhibited the best performance among others, even with more data augmentation techniques. For the text-independent data (including speaker and text-independent), more data augmentations tend to improve speech emotion recognition performances. The results highlight the trade-off between the number of data augmentation and the performance of speech emotion recognition showing the necessity to choose a proper data augmentation technique for a specific application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Localization; Navigation; Smartphone; GNSS; 3D Building Models
Online: 4 August 2022 (08:56:12 CEST)
Smart health applications have received significant attention in recent years. Novel applications hold significant promise to overcome many of the inconveniences faced by persons with disabilities throughout daily living. For people with blindness and low vision (BLV), environmental perception is compromised, creating myriad difficulties. Precise localization is still a gap in the field and is critical to safe navigation. Conventional GNSS positioning cannot provide satisfactory performance in urban canyons. 3D mapping-aided (3DMA) GNSS may serve as an urban GNSS solution, since the availability of 3D city models has widely increased. As a result, this study developed a real-time 3DMA GNSS-positioning system based on state-of-the-art 3DMA GNSS algorithms. Shadow matching was integrated with likelihood-based ranging 3DMA GNSS, generating positioning hypothesis candidates. To increase robustness, the 3DMA GNSS solution was then optimized with Doppler measurements using factor graph optimization (FGO) in a loosely-coupled fashion. This study also evaluated positioning performance using an advanced wearable system’s recorded data in New York City. The real-time forward processed FGO can provide a root-mean-square error (RMSE) with about 21 m. The RMSE drops to 16 m when the data is post-processed with FGO in a combined direction. Overall results show that the proposed loosely-coupled 3DMA FGO algorithm can provide a better and more robust positioning performance for the multi-sensor integration approach used by this wearable for persons with BLV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0107.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: biology; symmetry; asymmetry; periodic ordering; aperiodic ordering; Curie principle; information; Landauer principle; continuous measure of symmetry; Shannon measure of symmetry.
Online: 4 August 2022 (08:54:04 CEST)
Physical roots, exemplifications and consequences of periodic and aperiodic ordering (represented by Fibonacci series) in biological systems are discussed. The role and physical and biological roots of symmetry and asymmetry appearing in biological patterns is addressed. Generalization of the Curie-Neumann Principle as applied to biological objects is presented, briefly summarized as: “asymmetry is what creates a biological phenomenon”. The “up-bottom approach” and “bottom up” approaches to the explanation of symmetry in organisms are presented in detail. The “up-bottom approach”, implies that the symmetry of the biological structure follows the symmetry of media in which this structure is functioning; the “bottom-up” approach, in turn, adopt that the symmetry of biological structures emerges from the symmetry of molecules constituting the structure. A diversity of mathematical measures applicable for quantification of ordering in biological patterns is introduced. The continuous, Shannon and Voronoi measures of symmetry/ordering and their application to biology objects are addressed. The fine structure of the notion of “ordering” is discussed. Informational/algorithmic roots of ordering inherent for the biological systems are considered. Ordered/symmetrical patterns provide economy of biological information, necessary for algorithmic description of a biological entity. Application of the Landauer principle bridging physics and theory of information to the biological systems is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0227.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: vortices; vortex physics; critical temperature; magnetic flux quantum; critical current density; critical magnetic field; many-body interaction
Online: 4 August 2022 (08:51:33 CEST)
To clarify the relationships among critical temperature, critical magnetic field, and critical current density, this paper describes many-body interactions of quantum magnetic fluxes (i.e., vortices) and calculates pinning-related critical current density. All calculations are analytically derived, without numerical or fitting methods. Afteralculating a magnetic flux quantum mass, we theoretically obtain the critical temperature in a many-body interaction scenario (which can be handled by our established method). We also derive the critical magnetic field and inherent critical current density at each critical temperature. Finally, we determine the pinning-related critical current density with self-fields. The relationships between the critical magnetic field and critical temperature, inherent critical current density and critical temperature, and pinning critical current density and temperature were consistent with experimental observations. From the critical current density and critical magnetic field, we clarified the magnetic field transition. It appears that a magnetic flux quantum collapses when the lattice of magnetic flux quanta melts. Our results, combined with our previously published papers, provide a comprehensive understanding of the transition points in high-Tc cuprates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0106.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: DPAGT1; Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation; sensitized chemical mutagenesis screen; mouse genetics; inherited retinal disease; ER Stress
Online: 4 August 2022 (07:08:13 CEST)
Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) are a heterogenous group of primarily autosomal recessive mendelian diseases caused by disruptions in the synthesis of lipid linked oligosaccha-rides and their transfer to proteins. CDGs affect multiple organ systems and vary in presentation, even within families. Here we describe a chemically induced mouse mutant, tvrm76, with early onset photoreceptor degeneration. The recessive mutation was mapped to Chromosome 9 and as-sociated with a missense mutation in the Dpagt1 gene encoding UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:dolichyl-phosphate N-acetyl-D-glucosaminephosphotransferase (EC 126.96.36.199). The mutation is predicted to cause a substitution of aspartic acid with glycine at residue 166 of DPAGT1. Increased expression of Ddit3, and elevated levels of HSPA5 (BiP) sug-gest the presence of early-onset endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. These changes were associated with induction of photoreceptor apoptosis in tvrm76 retinas. Mutations in human DPAGT1 cause Myasthenic Syndrome 13 and severe forms of Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type Ij. In contrast, Dpagt1tvrm76 homozygous mice present with congenital photoreceptor degeneration without overt muscle or muscular junction involvement. Our results suggest the possibility of DPAGT1 mutations in human patients that present primarily with retinitis pigmentosa with little or no muscle disease. Variants in DPAGT1 should be considered when evaluating cases of non-syndromic retinal degeneration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: asian breast cancers; mammography screening; risk-based screening
Online: 4 August 2022 (06:20:25 CEST)
Close to half (45.4%) of 2.3 million breast cancers (BC) diagnosed in 2020 were from Asia. While the burden of breast cancer has been examined on the level of broad geographic regions, literature on more in-depth coverage of the individual countries and subregions of the Asian continent is lacking. This review examines the breast cancer burden in 47 Asian countries. Breast cancer screening guidelines and risk-based screening initiatives are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0103.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Resveratrol; antioxidant metabolism; scavengome; biomimetic oxidation; bioactivity-guided isolation; NMR spectroscopy; xanthine oxidase
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:33:52 CEST)
Resveratrol is a well-known natural polyphenol with a plethora of pharmacological activities. As a potent antioxidant, resveratrol is highly oxidizable, and readily reacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Such a reaction not only leads to a decrease in ROS levels in a biological environ-ment but may also generate a wide range of metabolites with altered bioactivities. Inspired by this notion, in the current study, our aim was to take a diversity-oriented chemical approach to study the chemical space of oxidized resveratrol metabolites. Chemical oxidation of resveratrol and a bioactivity-guided isolation strategy using xanthine oxidase (XO) and radical scavenging activities led to the isolation of a diverse group of compounds, including a chlorine-substituted compound (2), two iodine-substituted compounds (3 and 4), two viniferins (5 and 6), an eth-oxy-substituted compound (7) two ethoxy-substituted dimers (8 and 9). Compounds 4, 7, 8 and 9 are reported here for the first time. All compounds without ethoxy-substitution exerted stronger XO inhibition than their parent compound, resveratrol. By enzyme kinetic and in silico docking studies compounds 2, 3 and 4 were identified as potent competitive inhibitors of the enzyme while the viniferins acted as mixed-type inhibitors. Further, compounds 2 and 9 had better DPPH scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity than resveratrol. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of resveratrol is modulated by the effect of a cascade of chemically stable oxidized metabolites, several of which have significantly altered target specificity as compared to their parent compound.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Food; feeding style; eating trends; food interactions, food intake; food preparation; food management; food insecurity; meal planning; parent; child; family food environment; COVID-19; systematic review
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:26:38 CEST)
Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by dramatic changes in household food dynamics that can significantly influence health. This systematic literature review presents parental perspectives of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on food preparation and meal routines, as well as other food-related behaviors, capturing both favorable and unfavorable changes in the family food environment (FFE). Themes and trends are identified and associations with other lifestyle factors are assessed. In overall, families enjoyed more time together around food, including planning meals, cooking, and eating together. Eating more diverse foods and balanced meals was combined with overeating and increased snacking, as parents became more permissive towards food; however, food insecurity increased among families with the lowest income. Adoption of meal planning skills and online shopping behavior emerged alongside behaviors aimed at self-sufficiency, such as bulk purchasing and stockpiling. These results are an important first step in recognizing how this pandemic may be affecting the FFE, including low-income families. Future obesity prevention and treatment initiatives, but also ongoing efforts to address food management, parental feeding practices, and food insecurity, can account for these changes moving forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0101.v1
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:21:03 CEST)
Abstract: The present study seeks to investigate MNOs leadership style and how it influences their compassion competence and their personal level of compassion at work. This is a cross-sectional study carried out from December 2019 to May 2020 using the method of convenience sampling. The study involved 235 MNOs serving in Greek Military Hospitals. A single questionnaire containing Compassion at Work index, Compassion competence scale, and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X), and socio-demographic and professional data, was used for data collection. A total of 400 printed questionnaires were distributed with a response rate of 58.75%. Data analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS 22.0. The research showed that the transformational and transactional leadership styles coexist in the Nursing Corps of the Armed Forces with an average value of 2.72(SD=0.70)-2.95(SD=0.54) points and 2.47(SD=0.69)-2.74(SD=0.63) points respectively, while the passive style represented a very small percentage with an average subscale value of 0.88(SD=0.61)-0.94(SD=0.63) points. It was also found that both actual compassion at work and compassion ability had improved with the increase of transformational or transactional leadership style characteristics and amelioration of leadership outcome criteria. On the other side, a deterioration of these was observed with the increase of the passive leadership. Specifically, a higher score in the «Intellectual Stimulation» scale was associated with a higher level of compassion at work in the dimension «Experiencing the suffering of others» (p=0.010/SD=0.14), while higher values on the «Laissez-Faire Leadership» scale were associated with less compassion at work in the same dimension (p<0.001/SD=0.13). Also, a higher score on the «Contingent Reward» scale was associated with more compassion at work in the dimension «Takes appropriate action» (p=0.023/SD=0.16). Furthermore, higher values observed in the «Inspirational Motivation», «Individual Consideration» and «Extra Effort» scales were associated with a better communication ability (p=0.035/SD=0.09, p=0.022/SD=0.12, and p=0.042/SD=0.08 accordingly). Finally, a higher score on the «Effectiveness» scale was associated with higher sensitivity (p=0.049/SD=0.08). Teaching appropriate leadership behavior, promoting a culture of compassion, and continuing to train nurses to manage their emotions should be included in the infrastructure of nursing science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v5
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: theory of everything; relativity; spacetime; cosmology; background radiation; Hubble’s law; Hubble constant; dark energy; wave–particle duality; quantum entanglement
Online: 4 August 2022 (04:51:16 CEST)
We introduce two symmetric concepts to physics: “distance” (space and time in one) and “wavematter” (electromagnetic wave packet and matter in one). We claim that physics has chosen the wrong concept of time: It is not aware that the time of a moving object flows in a direction other than my time. We provide 15 proofs for our claim by solving 15 mysteries of physics. For example, we prove that length contraction and time dilation are geometrical effects in a 4D manifold that we call “Euclidean spacetime”. We prove that the discrepancy in calculating the Hubble constant stems from a systematic error in the redshift measurement. We prove that what I deem wave, deems itself matter, which solves wave–particle duality. We even untangle quantum entanglement without the issue of non-locality. We claim that a huge amount of energy was injected into Euclidean spacetime at a point that we take as origin. Ever since has this energy been moving radially away at the speed of light. We live in the 3D hypersurface of an expanding 4D hypersphere. Hyperspherical coordinates have the advantage that they reduce all that is ever happening to just one formula. So, it is the Theory of Everything in these coordinates: “Energy is covering radial distance which, divided by Euclidean time, is equal to the speed of light.” Acceleration and force emerge from a conversion to Cartesian coordinates and are thus pure math. Matching the symmetry simplifies physics!
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: burnout phenomenon; child and adolescent athletes; psychological intervention; online intervention
Online: 4 August 2022 (04:36:42 CEST)
(1) Background: The subject of athlete burnout is often discussed among sports psychologists. Interventions to reduce this phenomenon are still under investigation with follow-up. Thus, the purpose of the current meta-analysis was to examine psychological interventions that have already been carried out to decrease or eliminate burnout syndrome in young athletes. (2) Methods: Scientific electronic databases were searched and five published studies published between January 2002 and June 2022, which met the criteria, were selected. This systematic review and meta-analyses followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias was used to assess the studies' quality. The metafor a package of the R statistical program was used to perform the analysis. (3) Results: Cognitive-behavioral therapy as well as mindfulness-based interventions effectively reduced most dimensions of burnout. Moreover, online interventions were significantly more beneficial in this reduction (4) Conclusions: There should be more high-quality studies on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in reducing burnout. Mainly because it leads to tremendous physical and psychological problems for athletes and their coaches and therefore requires particular interventions and prevention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Interstitial lung disease; Diffuse interstitial lung disease; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; High-resolution computed tomography; Complex Networks; Computer aided diagnosis
Online: 4 August 2022 (04:14:44 CEST)
Diffuse interstitial lung diseases (DILD) are a heterogeneous group of over 200 entities, some with dramatical evolution and poor prognostic. Because of their overlapping clinical, physiopathological and imagistic nature, successful management requires early detection and proper progression evaluation. This paper tests a complex networks (CN) algorithm for imagistic aided diagnosis fitness for the possibility of achieving relevant and novel DILD management data. 65 DILD and 31 normal high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) scans were selected and analyzed with the CN model. The algorithm is showcased in two case reports and then statistical analysis on the entire lot shows that a CN algorithm quantifies progression evaluation with a very fine accuracy, surpassing functional parameters’ variations. The CN algorithm can also be successfully used for early detection, mainly on the ground glass opacity Hounsfield Units band of the scan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0098.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; dysglycemia; blood glucose, ECG, personalized medicine, noninvasive blood glucose monitor
Online: 4 August 2022 (04:00:20 CEST)
Blood glucose (BG) monitoring is an important issue for critically ill patients. Previous studies reported that poor sugar control was associated with increased mortality in admitted patients. However, repeated blood glucose monitoring can be resource-consuming and cause a healthcare burden in clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to develop a personalized machine-learning model to predict dysglycemia based on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings. The study included patients with more than 20 ECG records during single hospital admission in the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III database, focusing on the lead II recordings, along with the corresponding blood sugar data. We processed the data and used ECG features from each heartbeat as inputs to develop a one-class support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to predict dysglycemia. The model prediction for dysglycemia using a single heartbeat had an AUC level of 0.92 ± 0.09, with a sensitivity of 0.92 ± 0.10 and specificity of 0.84 ± 0.04. Based on 10 s majority voting, the model prediction for dysglycemia improved to an AUC of 0.97 ± 0.06. In this study, we found that a personalized machine-learning algorithm could accurately detect dysglycemia using a single-lead ECG.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0097.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: acoustic emission; atmospheric corrosion; aluminum; aircraft structure; pitting corrosion; hydrogen bubbles; structural health monitoring
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:55:40 CEST)
Atmospheric corrosion of aluminum aircraft structures occurs due to numerous reasons. A typical phenomenon leading to corrosion is the deliquescence of contaminants such as salts due to changes in relative humidity (RH) caused by aircraft operation at different altitudes and climate zones. Currently, corrosion of aircrafts is controlled by scheduled inspections. In contrast, the present contribution aims for a continuous monitoring approach by using the acoustic emission (AE) method to detect and further evaluate atmospheric corrosion. The AE method is frequently used for corrosion detection at typically immersion-like conditions or for corrosion types where stress-induced cracking is involved. However, it has not yet been demonstrated for atmospheric corrosion at unloaded aluminum structures. To address this question, the present investigation uses small droplets of a corrosive sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to induce atmospheric corrosion on aluminum alloy AA2024-T351. Operating conditions of an aircraft are simulated by a controlled variation in RH. In addition, videos of the corrosion site are recorded to visually observe the corrosion process. Pitting corrosion is generated and clearly measurable AE signals are detected. An automatic video processing algorithm looking for sudden changes on the corrosion site mainly detects hydrogen bubbles formed when aluminum reacts with aqueous solutions. A clear correlation between the observed pitting corrosion, the AE and the hydrogen bubble activity and the RH, i.e., the electrolyte present at the aluminum surface, is found. Thus, the findings demonstrate the applicability of the AE method for monitoring atmospheric corrosion of aluminum aircraft structures by today’s measurement equipment. Numerous potential effects that can cause measurable AE signals are investigated and discussed. Among these, bubble activity is clearly considered to be the most emissive one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0096.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: IOT security; Lightweight cryptography; CPA attack; Midori block cipher
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:50:00 CEST)
Recently, with the rapid advancement of technology, Internet of Things (IoT) security has become more efficient and more complex, especially for resource-limited devices such as embedded devices, wireless sensors and radio frequency identification tags (RFID). Lightweight block ciphers (LBCs) provide security for these technologies to protect them against adversaries, but the need for low power consumption in LBCs is one of the most important challenges for IoT technologies. Furthermore, these LBCs are subject to multiple attacks and side channel attacks (SCAs) are among the mentioned threats to these cryptosystems. A type of SCA is correlation power analysis (CPA) in which the attacker tries to reach the key using the relationship between the power consumption of the chip during the algorithm running, data processing, and operations. In this article, a CPA attack is designed to discover master key of the Midori-64 block cipher. According to the proposed method, an attack is done to the first round S-boxes to get half of the key bits. Then, the second round S-boxes were attacked to other half of key bits just use 300 plain text samples. Finally, the most important physical attacks performed on the Midori, are compared to our proposed CPA attack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0095.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polyester fabric; surface; rubber; composites; adhesion behavior
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:38:30 CEST)
Due to the extremely inert surface of the polyester (PET) fabric, a toxic and traditional resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex (RFL) dipping solution is always needs to be used in in rubber composite industry. Unfortunately, other effective methods for fabric surface treatment are in urgent needed to improve the poor bonding interface between the fabric and the rubber matrix. In our study, a facile way to modify PET fabric was developed. Specifically, the fabric is treated by an alkaline solution and a coupling agent with magnetic agitation. Afterwards, the treated fabric/rubber composites are prepared through a co-vulcanization process. Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the surface chemical compositions of the modified fabrics. The adhesion behavior is analyzed by the peel test. The results show that the fabric surface is successfully grafted with a coupling agent, and the peel strength reaches 9.8 N/mm after KH550 treatment, which is increased 32% compared with that of the original fabric/rubber composites. In addition, the vulcanization rate and interfacial fracture mechanism are also researched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Linear analysis; Non-linear analysis; Detrended fluctuation analysis; Entropy; Recurrence plot; Root mean square; Fractals
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:32:16 CEST)
This study aimed to apply different complexity-based methods to surface electromyography (EMG) in order to detect neuromuscular changes after realistic warm-up and stretching procedures. Sixteen volunteers conducted two experimental sessions. They were tested before, after a standardized warm-up, and after a stretching exercise (static or neuromuscular nerve gliding technique). Tests included measurements of the knee flexion torque and EMG of biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. EMG was analyzed using the root mean square (RMS), sample entropy (SampEn), percentage of recurrence and determinism following a recurrence quantification analysis (%Rec and %Det) and a scaling parameter from a detrended fluctuation analysis. Torque was significantly greater after warm-up as compared to baseline and after stretching. RMS was not affected by the experimental procedure. In contrast, SampEn was significantly greater after warm-up and stretching as compared to baseline values. %Rec was not modified but %Det for BF muscle was significantly greater after stretching as compared to baseline. The a scaling parameter was significantly lower after warm-up as compared to baseline for ST muscle. From the present results, complexity-based methods applied to the EMG give additional information than linear-based methods. They appeared sensitive to detect EMG complexity increases following warm-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0093.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: wheat; TaCOPT3D; Cd uptake; TaWRKY22; transcriptional regulation
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:21:28 CEST)
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic non–essential element to plants, and its accumulation in crops has significant adverse effects on human health. The cross–talk between copper (Cu) and Cd has been reported, but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, the function of wheat Cu transporter 3D (TaCOPT3D) in Cd tolerance was investigated. The TaCOPT3D transcripts significantly accumulated in wheat roots under Cd exposure. To test whether TaCOPT3D was involved in response to Cd stress, overexpressing lines with altered expression of TaCOPT3D transporters were compared to wild–type (WT) plants. The results showed that, under 20 μM Cd treatment, TaCOPT3D–overexpression lines exhibited more biomass and lower Cd accumulation in roots, shoots, and grains compared to WT plants. In addition, the TaCOPT3D–overexpression lines demonstrated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a greater amount of active antioxidant enzymes under Cd conditions than WT plants. Moreover, TaCOPT3D–overexpression lines highly reduced Cd accumulation under exposure to 20 μM Cu. The regulation pathway of TaCOPT3D in response to Cd stress was investigated, and transcription factor (TF) TaWRKY22, which targeted the TaCOPT3D promoter, was identified. Therefore, TaCOPT3D can serve as a candidate gene for decreasing Cd accumulation in wheat through genetic engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0092.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hydrogeological effects; hydro-geomechanical modelling; Andalusia 1884 Earthquake; pore pressure effects; poroelasticity and seismicity
Online: 3 August 2022 (12:25:08 CEST)
The 1884 Andalusia Earthquake, with an estimated Magnitude between 6.2 and 6.7, is one of the most destructive events that shook the Iberian Peninsula, causing around 1200 casualties. Ac-cording to both paleoseismology studies and intensity maps, the earthquake source relates to the normal Ventas de Zafarraya Fault (Granada, Spain). Diverse hydrological effects were registered and later studied: landslides, rockfalls, soil liquefaction, all-around surge and loss of springs, alter-ations in the phreatic level, discharge in springs and brooks, and well levels, along with changes in water properties. Further insight into these phenomena found an interplay between hy-dro-geomechanical processes and crust surface deformations, conditions, and properties. This study focuses on simulating the features involved by the major 1884 event and aims at elucidating the mechanisms concerning the mentioned effects. It encompasses conceptual geological and kinematic models, and a 2D finite element simulation to account for the processes undergone by the Zafarraya Fault. The study focuses on the variability of hydro-geomechanical features and the time evolution of the ground pore-pressure distribution in both the preseismic and coseismic stag-es, matching some of the shreds of evidence found by field studies. This methodology can be ap-plied to other events registered in the National Catalogues of Earthquakes to reach a deeper in-sight, further knowledge, and better understanding of past earthquakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; novel tetracycline; neuroprotection
Online: 3 August 2022 (12:08:08 CEST)
The antibiotic tetracycline demeclocycline (DMC) was recently reported to rescue α-synuclein (α-Syn) fibril-induced pathology. However, the antimicrobial activity of DMC precludes its po-tential use in long-term neuroprotective treatments. Here, we synthesized a DMC derivative with residual antibiotic activity and improved neuroprotective effects. The molecule, called de-rivative demeclocycline (DDMC), was obtained by the removal of both dimethylamino substitu-ents at position 4 and the reduction of the hydroxyl group at position 12a on ring A of DMC. The modifications strongly diminished its antibiotic activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this compound preserved the low toxicity of DMC in dopaminergic cell lines while improving its ability to interfere with α-Syn amyloid-like aggregation, showing the highest effectiveness of all tetracyclines tested. Likewise, DDMC demonstrated the ability to reduce seeding induced by the exogenous addition of α-Syn preformed fibrils (α-SynPFF ) in ex vitro models and in SH-SY5Y-α-Syn-tRFP cells. In addition, in the presence of DDMC, α-SynPFF were less inflammogenic, as they dampened the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and glutamate by microglial cells compared to control fibrils. Our results suggest that DDMC may be a promising drug candidate for hit-to-lead development and preclinical studies in PD and other synucleinopathies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: recycled carbon fiber (RCF); fibers reinforced epoxy composites (FRE); plasma treatment; me-chanical properties
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:50:41 CEST)
The interfacial interface between the fibers and the matrix plays a key role for epoxy matrix composites and short recycled randomly arranged fibres. This study used short recycled carbon fiber (RCF) as a filler. Plasma treatment was used for carbon fiber surface treatment. This treat-ment was performed using radio (RF) and microwave (MW) frequencies at the same pressure and atmosphere. Appropriate chemical modification of the fiber surfaces helps to improve the wettability of the carbon fibers and, at the same time, allows the necessary covalent bonds to form between the fibers and the epoxy matrix. The effect of the plasma treatment was analyzed and confirmed by XPS analysis, Raman microscopy, SEM, TEM and wettability measurements. Composite samples filled with recycled carbon fibers with low concentrations (1 wt%, 2.5 wt% and 5 wt%) and high concentrations (20 wt% and 30 wt%) were made from selected treated fi-bers. The mechanical properties (impact toughness, 3PB) were analyzed on these samples. It was found that the modulus of elasticity and bending stress increase with the increasing content of recycled carbon fibers. A more significant change in impact strength occurred in samples with low concentration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0089.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Serotonin; Chemical imbalance theories of psychopathology; Circular causality; Biocultural psychopathology; Critical neuroscience
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:24:47 CEST)
Serotonin (5-HT) show important relations to stress, and this relationship is crucial to understanding the psychobiology of common mental disorders. Environmental stressors regulate phasic and tonic serotonin levels, which are related to valence and outcome probabilities. This regulation takes place at smaller timescales, but also at the level of gene expression regulation. Moreover, genes related to the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of 5-HT are also involved in this regulation. Genetic variations in these genes modulate how stressors can lead to mental distress, but stressors also modulate gene expression in a genotype-dependent manner. As a result, the relationship between psychosocial stress and the regulation of the expression of 5-HTergic genes is bidirectional. This suggests a “circular causality” in which gene variations control tonic and phasic 5-HT signals (“upward causality”), while configurations and functions of the entire organism determine which genes are up- or downregulated, or which gene products are actually relevant in each situation (“downward causality”). The highly important role of social factors in human psychopathology is highlighted, and factors such as attachment and socioeconomic status modulate how the circular vertical causality between genes, neurotransmitters, and behavior is organized, representing circular horizontal causality. These complex interrelationships also suggest that more refined epistemologies are needed to fully grasp the relationship between 5-HT and common mental disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Amino acids; cancer; cancer metabolism; cancer therapy; kidney cancer; renal adenocarcinoma; renal cancer; metastasis; selective amino acid restriction therapy; restriction
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:16:39 CEST)
Targeted therapies with antiangiogenic drugs (e.g., sunitinib) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., anti-PD-1 antibodies) are the standard of care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Although these treatments improve patient survival, they are rarely curative. We previously hypothesized that advanced cancers might be treated without drugs by using artificial diets in which the levels of specific amino acids (AAs) are manipulated. In this work, after showing that AA manipulation induces selective anticancer activity in renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro, we evaluated the anticancer activity of 17 artificial diets in a challenging animal model of renal cell carcinoma. The model was stablished by injecting murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) cells into the peritoneum of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. Mice survival was markedly improved when their normal diet was replaced with our artificial diets. Mice fed a diet lacking six AAs (diet T2) lived longer than mice treated with sunitinib or anti-PD-1 immunotherapy; several animals lived very long or were cured. Controlling the levels of several AAs (e.g., cysteine, methionine and leucine) and lipids was important for the anticancer activity of the diets. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of this simple and inexpensive anticancer strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0058.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Digital reference object; Perivascular spaces; Spatio-temporal imaging artefacts; Perivascular space enhancement; Cerebral small vessel disease
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:12:43 CEST)
Growing interest surrounds the assessment of perivascular spaces (PVS) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their validation as a clinical biomarker of adverse brain health. Nonetheless, the limits of validity of current state-of-the-art segmentation methods are still unclear. Here, we propose an open-source three-dimensional computational framework comprising 3D digital reference objects and evaluate the performance of three PVS filtering methods under various spatiotemporal imaging considerations (including sampling, motion artefacts, and Rician noise). Specifically, we study the performance of the Frangi, Jerman and RORPO filters in enhancing PVS-like structures to facilitate segmentation. Our findings were three-fold. First, as long as voxels are isotropic, RORPO outperforms the other two filters, regardless of imaging quality. Unlike the Frangi and Jerman filters, RORPO’s performance does not deteriorate as PVS volume increases. Second, the performance of all “vesselness” filters is heavily influenced by imaging quality, with sampling and motion artefacts being the most damaging for these types of analyses. Third, none of the filters can distinguish PVS from other hyperintense structures (e.g. white matter hyperintensities, stroke lesions, or lacunes) effectively, the area under precision-recall curve dropped substantially (Frangi: from 94.21 [IQR 91.60, 96.16] to 43.76 [IQR 25.19, 63.38]; Jerman: from 94.51 [IQR 91.90, 95.37] to 58.00 [IQR 35.68, 64.87]; RORPO: from 98.72 [IQR 95.37, 98.96] to 71.87 [IQR 57.21, 76.63] without and with other hyperintense structures, respectively). The use of our computational model enables comparing segmentation methods and identifying their advantages and disadvantages, thereby providing means for testing and optimising pipelines for ongoing and future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0087.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: piezoelectricity; energy harvesting; zinc oxide; nanostructures
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:08:37 CEST)
he present experiment concerns deposition of ZnO by ALD and subsequent growth of nanowires by chemical bath. We used a novel AISI 301 steel substrate with mechanical parameters that make it suitable to use as a piezoelectric component in an energy harvesting device. We found out that a thin layer of another oxide below ZnO provides outstanding adhesion. Without it, ZnO exhibits island growth and is mechanically unstable. Such prepared samples were placed under repeated mechanical stress. They showed a piezoelectric signal which is stable after hundreds of actuations. This shows good promise for use of our device based on ZnO, an earth-abundant and non-toxic material, as an alternative to widespread in piezo components but environmentally unfriendly PZT. The piezo layers generated enough power for operations performed by a IoT chip. The designed measurement setup allowed for the demonstration of an application of AISI 301 steel substrate coated with ZnO by atomic layer and chemical bath deposition techniques as a piezoelectric component capable of generating energies usable in Internet of Things applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0086.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: airborne microplastics; urban pollution; microplastic pollution monitoring
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:01:45 CEST)
Airborne microplastic (MP) is an emerging pollutant, still under-characterised and insufficiently understood. Detailed description of MP air pollution is crucial as it has been identified in human lungs and remote locations, highlighting atmosphere as medium of MP dispersion and transportation. The lack of standardization of methods for measuring and further monitoring of the MP pollution is an obstacle towards the assessment of health risks. Since the first recognition of MP presence in the atmosphere of Krakow in 2019, this research was conducted to further characterise and develop the methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis of airborne MP (ATR-FTIR, Pyr-GC-MS, SEM-EDS) and pre-treatment of samples.The data was gathered in seven cycles, from June 2019 to February 2020. Methods used in the study allowed the identification and analysis of the changing ratio of the different types of synthetic polymers identified in the atmospheric fallout (LDPE, Nyl-66, PE, PET, PP, PUR). Observations of interactions between MP particles and environment were made with analyses of surface changes due to the degradation. Mineral phases attached to the MPs’ surfaces, with some of the inorganic contaminants transported on these surfaces, determined to also be of anthropogenic origin.Methodology proposed in this study, allows further characterisation of MP from multiple locations to provide highly comparable data, leading to the identification of the sources of this phenomenon, as well as seasonal changes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0084.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomaterial; optical imaging; MRI imaging; nanoparticles
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:43:49 CEST)
Visualization of deep biological structures in human and animal bodies is not possible through the naked eye due to the scattering of visible light by tissues in tolerable intensities. Different types of imaging modalities based on electromagnetic and pressure waves have been developed that help us image deep biological tissues with varying resolution and contrast. Some of the most widely used modalities are X-ray imaging, ultrasound imaging, MRI imaging, fluorescence imaging, and photoacoustic imaging. Although these techniques have significantly helped the advancement of our understanding of deep biological tissues and functions, they often require the use of exogenous contrast agents to improve their image quality for better investigation. Nanoparticle-based contrast agents have captivated scientists because of multiple advantages associated with them such as their excellent photophysical and chemical properties, ability to be precisely delivered at the target, and superlative tunability. This article is aimed to give a brief outlook on the recent state of art advances in the usage of nanoparticles for preclinical and clinical bioimaging through fluorescence, photoacoustic, and MRI imaging modalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Ratios; Financial Crisis; Covid-19; Big Data; Accounting Data
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:42:06 CEST)
The effects of the 2008 financial crisis undoubtedly caused problems not only to the banking sector but also to the real economy of the developed and the developing countries in almost all around the globe. Besides, as is widely known, every banking crisis entails the corresponding cost to the economy of each country affected by it, which results from the shakeout and the restructuring of its financial system. The purpose of this research is to investigate the consequences of the financial crisis and the COVID-19 health crisis and how these affected the course of the four systemic banks (Eurobank, Alpha Bank, National Bank, Piraeus Bank) through the analysis of ratios for the period of 2015-2020.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0082.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: therapy resistance; tumor microenvironment; metabolic reprogramming; purinergic receptor; cancer metabolism; immunometabolism
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:35:30 CEST)
ATP and other nucleoside phosphates have specific receptors named purinergic receptors. Purinergic receptors and ectonucleotidases regulate various signaling pathways that play a role in physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular ATP in the tumor microenvironment (TME) has a higher level than in normal tissues and plays a role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. In this review, we investigated the role of purinergic receptors in the development of resistance to therapy through changes in tumor cell metabolism. When a cell transforms to neoplasia, its metabolic processes change. The metabolic reprogramming modified metabolic feature of the TME, that can cause impeding immune surveillance and promote cancer growth. The purinergic receptors contribute to therapy resistance by modifying cancer cells' glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. Limiting the energy supply of cancer cells is one approach to overcoming resistance. Glycolysis inhibitors which reduce intracellular ATP levels, may make cancer cells more susceptible to anti-cancer therapies. The loss of the P2X7R through glucose intolerance and decreased fatty acid metabolism reduces therapeutic resistance. Potential metabolic blockers that can be employed in combination with other therapies will aid in the discovery of new anti-cancer immunotherapy to overcome therapy resistance. Therefore, therapeutic interventions that are considered to inhibit cancer cell metabolism and purinergic receptors simultaneously can potentially reduce resistance to treatment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0081.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; micrometastatic niche; Patient with Cancer
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:22:20 CEST)
In previous clinical studies, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in patients with cancer has a high risk of aggravation and mortality than in healthy infected individuals. The inoculation with the COVID-19 vaccine reduces the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID- 19 severity. However, vaccination-induced production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is said to be lower in patients with cancer than in healthy individuals. Additionally, the rationale for why patients with cancer become more severe with COVID-19 is not well understood. Therefore, we examined the infection status of SARS-CoV-2 in primary tumor and micrometastasis tissues of patients with cancer and COVID-19. In this study, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression was observed, and SARS-CoV-2 particles were detected in ovarian tissue cells in contact with the micrometastatic niche of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. We believe that more severe COVID-19 cases in patients with cancer may be attributed to these pathological features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: gastric cancer; deep learning; digital pathology; lymph node metastasis
Online: 3 August 2022 (08:48:02 CEST)
Histologically poor differentiation is associated with lymph node metastasis. Thus, pathological evaluation of biopsy specimens is crucial when treating stomach cancers. Deep learning of WSIs is challenging because the images are enormous. Given the computing limitations, patch-level supervised learning methods have been proposed. However, valuable information is lost when dividing WSIs into smaller patches. Another drawback is the need for pixel-level annotation by a pathologist. It is acceptable to differentiate, i.e., grade, gastric cancer at the holistic tissue level (i.e., under low magnification). We developed a weakly supervised learning technique for tissue-level gastric adenocarcinoma histological differentiation (well-to-moderately or poorly differentiated) and applied global reasoning to tissue-level features. The tissue-level AUROCs of the histological differentiation classifiers were 0.953, 0.969, and 0.943, respectively when data from five hospitals were subjected to threefold cross-validation. Comparison of the Grad-CAM heatmaps of the trained classifier and the pathologists’ annotations confirmed that our weakly supervised model exhibited performed well.
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