Abu Bakar, H.; Abd Rahim, R.; Soh, P.J.; Akkaraekthalin, P. Liquid-Based Reconfigurable Antenna Technology: Recent Developments, Challenges and Future. Sensors2021, 21, 827.
Abu Bakar, H.; Abd Rahim, R.; Soh, P.J.; Akkaraekthalin, P. Liquid-Based Reconfigurable Antenna Technology: Recent Developments, Challenges and Future. Sensors 2021, 21, 827.
Advances in reconfigurable liquid-based reconfigurable antennas are enabling new possibilities to fulfil the requirements of more advanced wireless communication systems. In this review, a comparative analysis of various state-of-the-art concepts and techniques for designing reconfigurable antennas using liquid is presented. First, the electrical properties of different liquids at room temperature commonly used in reconfigurable antennas are identified. This is followed by a discussion of various liquid actuation techniques in enabling high frequency reconfigurability. Next, liquid-based reconfigurable antennas in literature used to achieve the different types of reconfiguration will be critically reviewed. These include frequency-, polarization-, radiation pattern- and compound reconfigurability. The current concepts of liquid-based reconfigurable antennas can be classified broadly into three basic approaches: altering the physical (and electrical) dimensions of antennas using liquid, applying liquid-based sections as reactive loads; and implementation of liquids as dielectric resonators. Each concept and their design approaches will be examined, outlining their benefits, limitations, and possible future improvements.
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