Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Influence of a Major Mountainous Landscape Barrier (Mount Cameroon) on the Spread of Metabolic (GSTe2) and Target-Site (Rdl) Resistance Alleles in the African Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus

Version 1 : Received: 6 November 2020 / Approved: 9 November 2020 / Online: 9 November 2020 (11:07:47 CET)

How to cite: Amvongo-Adjia, N.; Riveron, J.M.; Njiokou, F.; Wanji, S.; Wondji, C.S. Influence of a Major Mountainous Landscape Barrier (Mount Cameroon) on the Spread of Metabolic (GSTe2) and Target-Site (Rdl) Resistance Alleles in the African Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus. Preprints 2020, 2020110277 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0277.v1). Amvongo-Adjia, N.; Riveron, J.M.; Njiokou, F.; Wanji, S.; Wondji, C.S. Influence of a Major Mountainous Landscape Barrier (Mount Cameroon) on the Spread of Metabolic (GSTe2) and Target-Site (Rdl) Resistance Alleles in the African Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus. Preprints 2020, 2020110277 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0277.v1).

Abstract

Increased levels of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus threaten the effectiveness of insecticide-based control programmes. Understanding the landscape features impacting the spread of resistance makers is necessary to design suitable resistance management strategies. Here we examined the influence of the highest mountain in West Africa (Mount Cameroon; 4,100 meters elevation) on the spread of metabolic and target-site resistance alleles in An. funestus populations. Vector composition varied across the four localities surveyed along the altitudinal cline with major vectors exhibiting high parity rate (80.5%). Plasmodium infection rates ranged from 0.79% (An. melas) to 4.67% (An. funestus). High frequencies of GSTe2R (67% - 81%) and RdlR (49% - 90%) resistance alleles were observed in An. funestus throughout the study area, with GSTe2R frequency increasing with altitude whereas the opposite is observed for RdlR. Patterns of genetic diversity and population structure analyses revealed high levels of polymorphisms with 12 and 16 haplotypes respectively for GSTe2 and Rdl. However, the reduced diversity patterns of resistance allele carriers revealed signatures of positive selection on the two genes across the study area irrespective of the altitude. Despite slight variations associated with the altitude, the spread of resistance alleles suggest that control strategies could be implemented against malaria vectors across mountainous landscapes.

Subject Areas

Malaria; Anopheles funestus; Insecticide resistance; Mount Cameroon

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