Preprint Review Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Glucose as a Major Antioxidant: When, What for and Why It Fails?

Version 1 : Received: 10 December 2019 / Approved: 12 December 2019 / Online: 12 December 2019 (05:29:28 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 29 January 2020 / Approved: 30 January 2020 / Online: 30 January 2020 (12:49:19 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Cherkas, A.; Holota, S.; Mdzinarashvili, T.; Gabbianelli, R.; Zarkovic, N. Glucose as a Major Antioxidant: When, What for and Why It Fails? Antioxidants 2020, 9, 140. Cherkas, A.; Holota, S.; Mdzinarashvili, T.; Gabbianelli, R.; Zarkovic, N. Glucose as a Major Antioxidant: When, What for and Why It Fails? Antioxidants 2020, 9, 140.

Journal reference: Antioxidants 2020, 9, 140
DOI: 10.3390/antiox9020140

Abstract

A human organism depends on stable glucose blood levels in order to maintain the metabolic needs. Glucose is considered as the most important energy source and glycolysis is postulated as a backbone pathway. However, when glucose supply is limited, ketone bodies and amino acids can be used to produce enough ATP. In contrast, for the functioning of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) glucose is essential and cannot be substituted by other metabolites. PPP generates and maintains levels of NADPH needed for reduction of oxidized glutathione and protein thiols, synthesis of lipids and DNA as well as for xenobiotic detoxification, regulatory redox signaling and counteracting infections. Flux of glucose into a PPP, particularly under extreme oxidative and toxic challenges is critical for survival, whereas the glycolytic pathway is primarily activated when glucose is abundant, and there is lack of NADP+ that is required for activation of glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase. An important role of glycogen stores in resistance to oxidative challenges is discussed. Current evidences explain disruptive metabolic effects and detrimental health consequences of chronic nutritional carbohydrate overload and provides new insights into positive metabolic effects of intermittent fasting, caloric restriction, exercise, and ketogenic diet through modulation of redox homeostasis.

Subject Areas

glucose; pentose phosphate pathway; NADPH; redox balance; glycogen; glycolysis; stress resistance; insulin resistance

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 30 January 2020
Commenter: Andriy Cherkas
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Revisions are throughout the manuscript.
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