Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Blood Lead Influences the Anemia Status of Malaria-Infected Children in Katanga Kampala Uganda

Version 1 : Received: 30 July 2019 / Approved: 31 July 2019 / Online: 31 July 2019 (11:52:32 CEST)

How to cite: Mukisa, A.; Kasozi, D.; Aguttu, C.; Vuzi, P.C.; Nantaba, F.; Kyambadde, J. Blood Lead Influences the Anemia Status of Malaria-Infected Children in Katanga Kampala Uganda. Preprints 2019, 2019070355 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201907.0355.v1). Mukisa, A.; Kasozi, D.; Aguttu, C.; Vuzi, P.C.; Nantaba, F.; Kyambadde, J. Blood Lead Influences the Anemia Status of Malaria-Infected Children in Katanga Kampala Uganda. Preprints 2019, 2019070355 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201907.0355.v1).

Abstract

Lead pollutants mainly from urban agricultural practices, Leaded paints, Leaded fuels spillages, Lead-contaminated air, soils, and water sources pause a health threat to urban children in Uganda. Prolonged Lead exposure affects iron metabolism, by competitively blocking iron absorption leading to anemia. Blood Lead (BL) inhibits key enzymes ferrochelatase and aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) involved in hemoglobin (Hb) biosynthesis even at very low levels. Lead poisoning and malaria infection geographically overlap, and both produce similar hematological outcome especially in children. Malaria parasites cause anemia by destroying parasitized red blood cells, therefore, co-existence of BL and malaria parasites infection worsens the anemia status of the host. This study aimed at expounding the extent of heme synthesis inhibition by BL levels among a study group of malaria positive children by measuring levels of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) in blood samples. Briefly venous blood samples from 198 children were analyzed for malaria parasite densities by the thick smear method, hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations determined by the standard cyan methemoglobin method, BLL were analyzed on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and FEP levels were fluorometrically measured. The results showed means of BLL (9.3 µg/dL), Hb (7.5 g/dL), FEP/Hb (8.3 µg/g) and parasite density (PD) (3.21×103 parasites / µL) among the study group. A majority of 151/198 (76.3%) of the children were moderately anemic while 8/198 (4%) were severely anemic. There was weak correlation between PD and Hb (R²= -0.15, P-value < 0.001), as compared to one between FEP/Hb and Hb (R²= -0.6, P-value=0.001). The study concludes that BL is a significant contributor to malaria anemia and should be considered in the management of anemia in malaria-endemic areas.

Subject Areas

blood lead; plasmodium malaria parasites; anemia; free erythrocytes protoporphyrin

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