Mishra, A.K.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, D.; Nath, V.S.; Jakše, J.; Kocábek, T.; Killi, U.K.; Morina, F.; Matoušek, J. Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Insights into the Response to Citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Viruses2018, 10, 570.
Mishra, A.K.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, D.; Nath, V.S.; Jakše, J.; Kocábek, T.; Killi, U.K.; Morina, F.; Matoušek, J. Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Insights into the Response to Citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Viruses 2018, 10, 570.
Viroids are smallest pathogen that consist of non-capsidated, single-stranded non-coding RNA replicons and exploits host factors for their replication and propagation. The severe stunting disease caused by Citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) is a serious threat, which spread rapidly within hop gardens. In this study, we employed comprehensive transcriptome analyses to dissect host-viroid interactions and identify gene expression changes associated with disease development in hop. Our analysis revealed that CBCVd-infection resulted in the massive modulation of activity of over 2000 genes. Expression of genes associated with plant immune responses (protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase), hypersensitive responses, phytohormone signaling pathways, photosynthesis, pigment metabolism, protein metabolism, sugar metabolism and modification and others were altered, which could be attributed to systemic symptom development upon CBCVd-infection in hop. In addition, genes encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, pathogenesis-related protein, chitinase as well as those related to basal defense responses were up-regulated. The expression levels of several genes identified from RNA sequencing analysis were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Our systematic comprehensive CBCVd-responsive transcriptome analysis provides a better understanding and insights into complex viroid-hop plant interaction. This information will assist further in the development of future measures for the prevention of CBCVd spread in hop fields.
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