Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling

Version 1 : Received: 19 August 2018 / Approved: 20 August 2018 / Online: 20 August 2018 (10:28:59 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Di Francesco, L.; Di Girolamo, F.; Mennini, M.; Masotti, A.; Salvatori, G.; Rigon, G.; Signore, F.; Pietrantoni, E.; Scapaticci, M.; Lante, I.; Goffredo, B.M.; Mazzina, O.; Elbousify, A.I.; Roncada, P.; Dotta, A.; Fiocchi, A.; Putignani, L. A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1238. Di Francesco, L.; Di Girolamo, F.; Mennini, M.; Masotti, A.; Salvatori, G.; Rigon, G.; Signore, F.; Pietrantoni, E.; Scapaticci, M.; Lante, I.; Goffredo, B.M.; Mazzina, O.; Elbousify, A.I.; Roncada, P.; Dotta, A.; Fiocchi, A.; Putignani, L. A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1238.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2018, 10, 1238
DOI: 10.3390/nu10091238

Abstract

Human milk composition is dynamic and substitute formulae are intended to mimic its protein content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiality of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) followed by multivariate data analyses as a tool to analyze peptide profiling of mammalian, human and formula milks. Breast milk samples from women at different lactation stages (2 (n = 5), 30 (n = 6), 60 (n = 5), and 90 (n = 4) days postpartum), and milk from donkeys (n = 4), cows (n = 4), buffaloes (n = 7), goats (n = 4), ewes (n = 5), and camels (n = 2) were collected. Different brands (n = 4) of infant formulae were also analyzed. Protein content (<30 kDa) was analyzed by MS and data were exported for statistical elaborations. Mass spectra for each milk closely clustered together, whereas different milk samples resulted well separated. Human samples formed a cluster in which colostrum constituted a well-defined subcluster. None of the milk formulae correlated with animal or human milk, although specifically characterized and well correlated each other. These findings propose MALDI-TOF MS milk profiling as an analytical tool to discriminate, in a blinded way, different milk types. As each formula has a distinct specificity, shifting a baby from one to another formula implies a specific proteomic exposure. These profiles may assist in milk proteomics for easiness of use and low cost consuming, suggesting that the MALDI-TOF MS pipelines may result useful for milk adulteration assessment but also for the characterization of banked milk specimens in paediatric clinical settings.

Subject Areas

infant nutrition; breast milk; mammalian milk; formula milk; protein similarity profiling; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

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