Di Francesco, L.; Di Girolamo, F.; Mennini, M.; Masotti, A.; Salvatori, G.; Rigon, G.; Signore, F.; Pietrantoni, E.; Scapaticci, M.; Lante, I.; Goffredo, B.M.; Mazzina, O.; Elbousify, A.I.; Roncada, P.; Dotta, A.; Fiocchi, A.; Putignani, L. A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling. Nutrients2018, 10, 1238.
Di Francesco, L.; Di Girolamo, F.; Mennini, M.; Masotti, A.; Salvatori, G.; Rigon, G.; Signore, F.; Pietrantoni, E.; Scapaticci, M.; Lante, I.; Goffredo, B.M.; Mazzina, O.; Elbousify, A.I.; Roncada, P.; Dotta, A.; Fiocchi, A.; Putignani, L. A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1238.
Human milk composition is dynamic and substitute formulae are intended to mimic its protein content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiality of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) followed by multivariate data analyses as a tool to analyze peptide profiling of mammalian, human and formula milks. Breast milk samples from women at different lactation stages (2 (n = 5), 30 (n = 6), 60 (n = 5), and 90 (n = 4) days postpartum), and milk from donkeys (n = 4), cows (n = 4), buffaloes (n = 7), goats (n = 4), ewes (n = 5), and camels (n = 2) were collected. Different brands (n = 4) of infant formulae were also analyzed. Protein content (<30 kDa) was analyzed by MS and data were exported for statistical elaborations. Mass spectra for each milk closely clustered together, whereas different milk samples resulted well separated. Human samples formed a cluster in which colostrum constituted a well-defined subcluster. None of the milk formulae correlated with animal or human milk, although specifically characterized and well correlated each other. These findings propose MALDI-TOF MS milk profiling as an analytical tool to discriminate, in a blinded way, different milk types. As each formula has a distinct specificity, shifting a baby from one to another formula implies a specific proteomic exposure. These profiles may assist in milk proteomics for easiness of use and low cost consuming, suggesting that the MALDI-TOF MS pipelines may result useful for milk adulteration assessment but also for the characterization of banked milk specimens in paediatric clinical settings.
infant nutrition; breast milk; mammalian milk; formula milk; protein similarity profiling; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
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