Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Removal Characteristics of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursorsby Pilot-Scale Integrated Membrane Systems for Water Reuse

Version 1 : Received: 24 July 2018 / Approved: 24 July 2018 / Online: 24 July 2018 (15:46:34 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Takeuchi, H.; Yamashita, N.; Nakada, N.; Tanaka, H. Removal Characteristics of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Pilot-Scale Integrated Membrane Systems for Water Reuse. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1960. Takeuchi, H.; Yamashita, N.; Nakada, N.; Tanaka, H. Removal Characteristics of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Pilot-Scale Integrated Membrane Systems for Water Reuse. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1960.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1960
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15091960

Abstract

This study investigated the removal characteristics of N-nitrosamines and their precursors at three pilot-scale water reclamation plants. These plants applies different integrated membrane systems: (1) microfiltration (MF) / nanofiltration (NF) / RO; (2) sand filtration/three-step RO; and (3) ultrafiltration (UF) / NF and UF / RO. Variable removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by the RO membrane processes could be attributable to membrane fouling and feed water temperature. The effect of membrane fouling on N-nitrosamines removal was extensively evaluated at one of the plants by conducting one month of operation and chemical cleaning of the RO membrane element. Membrane fouling enhanced N-nitrosamines removal by the pilot-scale RO membrane process. This finding contributes to better understanding of variable removal of NDMA by RO membrane processes. This study also investigated the removal characteristics of N-nitrosamines precursors. The NF and RO membrane processes greatly reduced NDMA formation potential (FP), but the UF process had little effect. The contributions of MF, NF, and RO membrane processes for reducing FPs of NDMA, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were different, suggesting different size distributions of their precursors.

Subject Areas

N-nitrosamines; formation potential; membrane treatment; reverse osmosis; membrane fouling; pilot-scale

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