Preprint Review Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Recent Advances in Applications of Acidophilic Fungal Microbes for Bio-Chemicals

Version 1 : Received: 15 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (10:36:26 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 14 June 2018 / Approved: 15 June 2018 / Online: 15 June 2018 (05:51:17 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Javaid, R.; Sabir, A.; Sheikh, N.; Ferhan, M. Recent Advances in Applications of Acidophilic Fungi to Produce Chemicals. Molecules 2019, 24, 786. Javaid, R.; Sabir, A.; Sheikh, N.; Ferhan, M. Recent Advances in Applications of Acidophilic Fungi to Produce Chemicals. Molecules 2019, 24, 786.

Journal reference: Molecules 2019, 24, 786
DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040786

Abstract

The processing of fossil fuels is the major environmental issue today which should be lessen. Biomass is gaining much interest these days as an alternate to energy generation. Lignocellulosic biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) is abundant and has been used for a variety of purposes. Among them, the lignin polymer having phenyl-propanoid subunits linked together through C-C bonds or ether linkages, can produce numerous chemicals. It can be depolymerized by microbial activity together with certain enzymes (laccases and peroxidases). Both acetic acid and formic acid production by certain fungi contribute significantly to lignin depolymerization. Natural organic acids production by fungi has many key roles in nature that are strictly dependent upon organic acid producing fungus type. Fungal enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic is beneficial over other physiochemical processes. Laccases, the copper containing proteins oxidize a broad spectrum of inorganic as well as organic compounds but most specifically phenolic compounds by radical catalyzed mechanism. Similarly, lignin peroxidases (LiP), the heme containing proteins perform a vital part in oxidizing a wide variety of aromatic compounds with H2O2. Lignin depolymerization yields value-added compounds, the important ones are BTX (Benzene, Xylene and Toluene) and phenols as well as certain polymers like polyurethane and carbon fibers. Thus, this review will provide a concept that biological modifications of lignin using acidophilic microbes can generate certain value added and environment friendly chemicals.

Subject Areas

lignocellulosic biomass; laccases; peroxidases; green biochemical; acidophilic microbes

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