Polydiacetylene (PDA) inserted in films or in vesicles have received increasing attention due to PDA property to undergo a blue-to-red colorimetric transition along with a change from non-fluorescent to fluorescent upon application of various stimuli. In this review paper, the principle of the detection of various microorganisms (bacteria: directly detected or detected through the emitted toxins or through their DNA, and viruses) and of antibacterial and antiviral peptides based on these responsive PDA vesicles are detailed. The obtained analytical performances, when vesicles are in suspension or immobilized, are given and compared to those of the responsive vesicles mainly based on the vesicle encapsulation method. Many future challenges are then discussed.
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