Preprint Communication Version 1 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and β-myrcene – Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya
2
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany
Version 1 : Received: 23 December 2016 / Approved: 25 December 2016 / Online: 25 December 2016 (08:21:19 CET)

How to cite: Okaru, A.; Lachenmeier, D. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and β-myrcene – Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?. Preprints 2016, 2016120122 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201612.0122.v1). Okaru, A.; Lachenmeier, D. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and β-myrcene – Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?. Preprints 2016, 2016120122 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201612.0122.v1).

Abstract

For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene belong to these potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using data from own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and literature review. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg) and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg) while among beverages, wines contained between 1–10 mg/L with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is either very old or based on single sample analysis, and currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

Subject Areas

furfuryl alcohol; β- myrcene; carcinogens; occurrence

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