Preprint Article Version 1 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

Geographic Distribution of Registered Packaged Water Production in Ghana: Implications for Groundwater Management and Environmental Impacts

1
Ghana School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
2
British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford OX10 8BB, UK
3
Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Version 1 : Received: 9 December 2016 / Approved: 10 December 2016 / Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)

How to cite: Dzodzomenyo, M.; Dotse-Gborgbortsi, W.; Lapworth, D.; Wardrop, N.; Wright, J. Geographic Distribution of Registered Packaged Water Production in Ghana: Implications for Groundwater Management and Environmental Impacts. Preprints 2016, 2016120059 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1). Dzodzomenyo, M.; Dotse-Gborgbortsi, W.; Lapworth, D.; Wardrop, N.; Wright, J. Geographic Distribution of Registered Packaged Water Production in Ghana: Implications for Groundwater Management and Environmental Impacts. Preprints 2016, 2016120059 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1).

Abstract

Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.

Subject Areas

water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban

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