Preprint Article Version 1 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting Potential in Urban Areas in Syria

  1. Department of Geography, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Giessen 35390, Germany
  2. Department of Geography, University of Dammam, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
Version 1 : Received: 22 November 2016 / Approved: 23 November 2016 / Online: 23 November 2016 (09:41:58 CET)

How to cite: Almohamad, H.; Mohammed Habib, B.; Dittmann, A. Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting Potential in Urban Areas in Syria. Preprints 2016, 2016110115 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201611.0115.v1). Almohamad, H.; Mohammed Habib, B.; Dittmann, A. Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting Potential in Urban Areas in Syria. Preprints 2016, 2016110115 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201611.0115.v1).

Abstract

Runoff water management is among the inherent challenges which face the sustainability of the development of semi-arid and arid urban centers. Available water per capita (AWPC) will dramatically decrease due to climate change, population increase, and water needed for economic growth as well as destroyed the Syrian city's main water pumping stations and main pipelines because of the continuation of the war since 2011 in most of the cities. There is the need to reconfigure current urban water systems to achieve the objective of sustainable water sensitive cities. Although rainwater harvesting (RWH) is considered to be a safe and reliable alternative source for domestic water, the inconvenience or practicalities related to the cost and space needed for the construction of ground or underground storage tanks make this practice not implemented in urban cities. The objective of this paper is to estimate the potential increase in available water from collecting roof rainwater in small reservoirs and using other rainwater harvesting techniques in urban areas in Syria. In our study, the techniques of rainwater harvesting easily to be used in the urban areas of Syria are presented. During average seasons, an 80 % runoff harvest can be expected when rainwater is collected and stored directly in tanks already installed on the roofs of buildings and not on the ground or underground ones. Comparisons with the rainfall analysis show that 13 % water demand can be met through RWH in dry areas and until 165 % water demand can be met wet areas through the RWH system.

Subject Areas

rain water harvesting; urban area; Syria

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