Preprint Review Version 1 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

Pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Early Immune-Modulator Therapy

Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
Department of Pediatrics, The Catholic University of Korea Daejeon St. Mary’s Hospital, Daejeon 34943, Korea
Version 1 : Received: 18 November 2016 / Approved: 18 November 2016 / Online: 18 November 2016 (10:18:58 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Lee, K.-Y. Pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and Early Immune-Modulator Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 388. Lee, K.-Y. Pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and Early Immune-Modulator Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 388.

Journal reference: Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 388
DOI: 10.3390/ijms18020388


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells. At the molecular level, these substances have various sizes and biochemical characteristics, classifying them as protein substances and non-protein substances. Immune cells and immune proteins may recognize and act on these substances, including pathogenic proteins and peptides, depending upon the size and biochemical properties of the substances (this theory is known as the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis). The severity or chronicity of ARDS depends on the amount of etiologic substances with corresponding immune reactions, the duration of the appearance of specific immune cells, or the repertoire of specific immune cells that control the substances. Therefore, treatment with early systemic immune modulators (corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin) as soon as possible may reduce aberrant immune responses in the potential stage of ARDS.

Subject Areas

pneumonia; acute respiratory distress syndrome; pathogenesis; protein-homeostasis-system; corticosteroid; intravenous immunoglobulin

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