Preprint Article Version 1 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

Particulate Matter and Respiratory Symptoms among Adults Living in Windhoek, Namibia; a Cross Sectional Descriptive Study

  1. Department of Health Sciences, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Private Bag, 13388 Windhoek, Namibia
  2. Laureate Online Education/University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
Version 1 : Received: 10 October 2016 / Approved: 10 October 2016 / Online: 10 October 2016 (09:59:29 CEST)

How to cite: Hamatui, N.; Beynon, C. Particulate Matter and Respiratory Symptoms among Adults Living in Windhoek, Namibia; a Cross Sectional Descriptive Study. Preprints 2016, 2016100030 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201610.0030.v1). Hamatui, N.; Beynon, C. Particulate Matter and Respiratory Symptoms among Adults Living in Windhoek, Namibia; a Cross Sectional Descriptive Study. Preprints 2016, 2016100030 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201610.0030.v1).

Abstract

The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to assess respiratory health risks associated with Particulate Matter (PM) exposure among the residents of Windhoek, Namibia. Objectives: To measure particulate pollution concentration in Windhoek through monitoring of particulate matter concentration and to identify any associations between particulate pollution, individual location and respiratory health among the Windhoek resident’s. Methods: an adapted standardized self-administered questionnaire was used to collect respiratory health related data as well as previous exposure, while PM monitoring was done using ASTM D1739 reference method. Results: A high prevalence was observed for cough (43%), breathlessness (25%), and Asthma (11.2%). PM was found to be a significant risk factor for episode of cough and phlegm, while high PM exposure category had increased odds ratio for episode of phlegm and cough (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8-8.0). No association was observed between location and respiratory health outcomes. Conclusion: The study found high levels of PM concentration across all Windhoek suburbs which were above the German, American and EPA. Enactment of legislation relating to the control and monitoring of PM related emissions at point of generation is required at country and city level.

Subject Areas

respiratory symptoms; PM exposure; residential location; Namibia; Windhoek

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